Volume 98, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Urban malaria is an underestimated serious health concern in African countries. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of malaria transmission in an urban area by evaluating the level of human exposure to bites using an salivary biomarker ( Salivary Gland Protein-6 peptide 1 [gSG6-P1] peptide). Two multidisciplinary cross-sectional studies were undertaken in five sites of Bouaké city (three urban districts and two surrounding villages, used as control; Côte d’Ivoire) during the rainy season and the dry season. Blood samples were obtained from children 6 months to 14 years of age for immunological tests. The level of anti-gSG6-P1 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was significantly higher in the rainy season than the dry season in both urban and rural sites ( < 0.0001). Interestingly, children with the highest anti-gSG6-P1 IgG responses in the rainy season were infected by . Surprisingly, no difference of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG level was observed between urban and rural areas, for either season. The current data suggest that children in the urban city of Bouaké could be as highly exposed to bites as children living in surrounding villages. The immunological biomarker of human exposure to bites may be used to accurately assess the potential risk of malaria transmission in African urban settings.


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  • Received : 22 Mar 2017
  • Accepted : 22 Nov 2017
  • Published online : 05 Mar 2018

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