1921
Volume 97, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which is almost always fatal. is waterborne, and its infections are usually associated with aquatic activities but it can also be transmitted via the domestic water supply. An increasing number of cases have been reported from Pakistan. Improved methods for diagnosis are required. We report the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of in patients suspected of PAM. One hundred and sixteen cases suspected of having PAM were examined. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were tested at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Nineteen CSF specimens were positive for using PCR. positive patients had a median age of 28 years and were 84% male and 16% female. Overall, CSF wet preparation microscopy was performed in 85 (73%) cases and identified that seven specimens were positive for motile trophozoites. The CSF wet preparation results were available for 15 of the 19 PCR positive CSF samples; seven (40%) wet preparations were positive. Our data highlight the threat of infection as a cause of PAM. It also emphasizes the utility of the PCR-based diagnosis of the amoeba for early diagnosis and management of the disease.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0110
2017-11-08
2018-11-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/97/5/tpmd170110.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0110&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Visvesvara GS, Moura H, Schuster FL, , 2007. Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea . FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 50: 126.[Crossref]
  2. Marciano-Cabral F, , 2009. Free-living amoebae as agents of human infection. J Infect Dis 199: 11041106.[Crossref]
  3. Yoder JS, 2012. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis deaths associated with sinus irrigation using contaminated tap water. Clin Infect Dis 55: e79e85.[Crossref]
  4. Siddiqui R, Khan NA, , 2014. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri: an old enemy presenting new challenges. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3017.[Crossref]
  5. Martinez AJ, , 1977. Free-living amebic meningoencephalitides: comparative study. Neurol Neurocir Psiquiatr 18: 391401.
  6. Jamil B, Ilyas A, Zaman V, , 2008. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Inf Dis J Pak 17: 6668.
  7. Ghanchi NK, Khan E, Khan A, Muhammad W, Malik FR, Zafar A, , 2016. Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis associated with public water supply, Pakistan, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 22: 18351837.[Crossref]
  8. Shakoor S, Beg MA, Mahmood SF, Bandea R, Sriram R, Noman F, Ali F, Visvesvara GS, Zafar A, , 2011. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 258261.[Crossref]
  9. Zahid MF, Saad Shaukat MH, Ahmed B, Beg MA, Kadir MM, Mahmood SF, , 2016. Comparison of the clinical presentations of Naegleria fowleri primary amoebic meningoencephalitis with pneumococcal meningitis: a case-control study. Infection 44: 505511.[Crossref]
  10. Qvarnstrom Y, Visvesvara GS, Sriram R, da Silva AJ, , 2006. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri . J Clin Microbiol 44: 35893595.[Crossref]
  11. Yoder JS, Eddy BA, Visvesvara GS, Capewell L, Beach MJ, , 2010. The epidemiology of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in the USA, 1962–2008. Epidemiol Infect 138: 968975.[Crossref]
  12. De Jonckheere JF, , 2011. Origin and evolution of the worldwide distributed pathogenic amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri . Infect Genet Evol 11: 15201528.[Crossref]
  13. Shariq A, Afridi FI, Farooqi BJ, Ahmed S, Hussain A, , 2014. Fatal primary meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri . J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 24: 523525.
  14. Cope JR, 2015. The first association of a primary amebic meningoencephalitis death with culturable Naegleria fowleri in tap water from a US treated public drinking water system. Clin Infect Dis 60: e36e42.[Crossref]
  15. Sajjad SH, Hussain B, Khan MA, Raza A, Zaman B, Ahmed I, , 2009. On rising temperature trends of Karachi in Pakistan. Climatic change 96: 539547.[Crossref]
  16. The News International, 2015. Karachi Braves Hottest Day in Many Years. Available at: https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/13151-karachi-braves-hottest-day-in-many-years. Accessed July 15, 2015.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0110
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0110
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 Feb 2017
  • Accepted : 23 Jul 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error