1921
Volume 98, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

The implementation of long-lasting insecticidal-treated bed nets (LLINs) has contributed to halving the mortality rate due to malaria since 2000 in sub-Saharan Africa. These tools are highly effective against indoor-feeding malaria vectors. Thus, to achieve the World Health Assembly’s new target to reduce the burden of malaria over the next 15 years by 90%, it is necessary to understand how the spatiotemporal dynamics of malaria vectors and human exposure to bites is modified in the context of scaling up global efforts to control malaria transmission. This study was conducted in Dielmo, a Senegalese village, after the introduction of LLINs and two rounds of LLINs renewals. Data analysis showed that implementation of LLINs correlated with a significant decrease in the biting densities of the main malaria vectors, s.l. and , reducing malaria transmission. Other environment factors likely contributed to the decrease in , but this trend was enhanced with the introduction of LLINs. The bulk of bites occurred during sleeping hours, but the residual vector populations of s.l. and had an increased propensity to bite outdoors, so a risk of infectious bites remained for LLINs users. These results highlight the need to increase the level and correct use of LLINs and to combine this intervention with complementary control measures against residual exposure, such as spatial repellents and larval source management, to achieve the goal of eliminating malaria transmission.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0009
2018-03-19
2019-11-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/98/5/tpmd170009.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0009&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2015. World Malaria Report 2015. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  2. Bayoh MN, Mathias DK, Odiere MR, Mutuku FM, Kamau L, Gimnig JE, Vulule JM, Hawley WA, Hamel MJ, Walker ED, , 2010. Anopheles gambiae: historical population decline associated with regional distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets in western Nyanza Province, Kenya. Malar J 9: 62. [Google Scholar]
  3. Awolola ST, Adeogun AO, Olojede JB, Oduola AO, Oyewole IO, Amajoh CN, , 2014. Impact of PermaNet 3.0 on entomological indices in an area of pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae in south-western Nigeria. Parasit Vectors 7: 236. [Google Scholar]
  4. O’Meara WP, Mangeni JN, Steketee R, Greenwood B, , 2010. Changes in the burden of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Infect Dis 10: 545555. [Google Scholar]
  5. Eisele TP, Larsen DA, Walker N, Cibulskis RE, Yukich JO, Zikusooka CM, Steketee RW, , 2012. Estimates of child deaths prevented from malaria prevention scale-up in Africa 2001–2010. Malar J 11: 93. [Google Scholar]
  6. Hetzel MW, Reimer LJ, Gideon G, Koimbu G, Barnadas C, Makita L, Siba PM, Mueller I, , 2016. Changes in malaria burden and transmission in sentinel sites after the roll-out of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Papua New Guinea. Parasit Vectors 9: 340. [Google Scholar]
  7. Bhatt S, 2015. The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015. Nature 526: 207211. [Google Scholar]
  8. World Health Organization, 2015. Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016–2030. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  9. Griffin JT, 2016. Potential for reduction of burden and local elimination of malaria by reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission: a mathematical modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis 16: 465472. [Google Scholar]
  10. Trape JF, 2011. Malaria morbidity and pyrethroid resistance after the introduction of insecticide-treated bednets and artemisinin-based combination therapies: a longitudinal study. Lancet Infect Dis 11: 925932. [Google Scholar]
  11. Zhou G, Afrane YA, Vardo-Zalik AM, Atieli H, Zhong D, Wamae P, Himeidan YE, Minakawa N, Githeko AK, Yan G, , 2011. Changing patterns of malaria epidemiology between 2002 and 2010 in western Kenya: the fall and rise of malaria. PLoS One 6: e20318. [Google Scholar]
  12. Jagannathan P, Muhindo MK, Kakuru A, Arinaitwe E, Greenhouse B, Tappero J, Rosenthal PJ, Kaharuza F, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, , 2012. Increasing incidence of malaria in children despite insecticide-treated bed nets and prompt anti-malarial therapy in Tororo, Uganda. Malar J 11: 435. [Google Scholar]
  13. Bayoh MN, 2014. Persistently high estimates of late night, indoor exposure to malaria vectors despite high coverage of insecticide treated nets. Parasit Vectors 7: 380. [Google Scholar]
  14. Ursing J, Rombo L, Rodrigues A, Aaby P, Kofoed PE, , 2014. Malaria transmission in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between 1995 and 2012: malaria resurgence did not negatively affect mortality. PLoS One 9: e0101167. [Google Scholar]
  15. Daniels RF, 2015. Modeling malaria genomics reveals transmission decline and rebound in Senegal. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112: 70677072. [Google Scholar]
  16. Ranson H, Lissenden N, , 2016. Insecticide resistance in African Anopheles mosquitoes: a worsening situation that needs urgent action to maintain malaria control. Trends Parasitol 32: 187196. [Google Scholar]
  17. Sougoufara S, Doucouré S, Sembène PM, Harry M, Sokhna C, , 2017. Challenges for malaria vector control in sub-Saharan Africa: resistance and behavioral adaptations in Anopheles populations. J Vector Borne Dis 54: 415. [Google Scholar]
  18. Russell TL, Govella NJ, Azizi S, Drakeley CJ, Kachur SP, Killeen GF, , 2011. Increased proportions of outdoor feeding among residual malaria vector populations following increased use of insecticide-treated nets in rural Tanzania. Malar J 10: 80. [Google Scholar]
  19. Reddy MR, Overgaard HJ, Abaga S, Reddy VP, Caccone A, Kiszewski AE, Slotman MA, , 2011. Outdoor host seeking behaviour of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes following initiation of malaria vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Malar J 10: 184. [Google Scholar]
  20. Killeen GF, , 2014. Characterizing, controlling and eliminating residual malaria transmission. Malar J 13: 330. [Google Scholar]
  21. Padonou GG, Gbedjissi G, Yadouleton A, Azondekon R, Razack O, Oussou O, Gnanguenon V, Rock A, Sezonlin M, Akogbeto M, , 2012. Decreased proportions of indoor feeding and endophily in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations following the indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated net interventions in Benin (West Africa). Parasit Vectors 5: 262. [Google Scholar]
  22. Sougoufara S, Diédhiou SM, Doucouré S, Diagne N, Sembène PM, Harry M, Trape JF, Sokhna C, Ndiath MO, , 2014. Biting by Anopheles funestus in broad daylight after use of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a new challenge to malaria elimination. Malar J 13: 125. [Google Scholar]
  23. Meyers JI, 2016. Increasing outdoor host-seeking in Anopheles gambiae over 6 years of vector control on Bioko Island. Malar J 15: 239. [Google Scholar]
  24. Sougoufara S, Harry M, Doucouré S, Sembène PM, Sokhna C, , 2016. Shift in species composition in the Anopheles gambiae complex after implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Dielmo, Senegal. Med Vet Entomol 30: 365368. [Google Scholar]
  25. Scott TW, Takken W, , 2012. Feeding strategies of anthropophilic mosquitoes result in increased risk of pathogen transmission. Trends Parasitol 28: 114121. [Google Scholar]
  26. Trape JF, 1994. The Dielmo project: a longitudinal study of natural malaria infection and the mechanisms of protective immunity in a community living in a holoendemic area of Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51: 123137. [Google Scholar]
  27. Trape JF, 2014. The rise and fall of malaria in a west African rural community, Dielmo, Senegal, from 1990 to 2012: a 22 year longitudinal study. Lancet Infect Dis 14: 476488. [Google Scholar]
  28. Wotodjo AN, Diagne N, Gaudart J, Richard V, Raoult D, Sokhna C, , 2015. Malaria risk factors in Dielmo, a Senegalese malaria-endemic village, between October and November of 2013: a case-control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 565568. [Google Scholar]
  29. Gilles MT, De Meillon D, , 1968. The anophelinae of Africa south of the Sahara. Publ South Afri Inst Med Res 54: 343. [Google Scholar]
  30. Wirtz RA, Duncan JF, Njelesani EK, Schneider I, Brown AE, Oster CN, Were JB, Webster HK, , 1989. ELISA method for detecting Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antibody. Bull World Health Organ 67: 535542. [Google Scholar]
  31. Fournier DA, Skaug HJ, Ancheta J, Ianelli J, Magnusson A, Maunder MN, Nielsen A, Sibert J, , 2012. AD model builder: using automatic differentiation for statistical inference of highly parameterized complex nonlinear models. Optim Methods Softw 27: 233249. [Google Scholar]
  32. Skaug H, Fournier D, Magnusson A, Nielsen A, , 2014. Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using AD Model Builder. (R Package v0.8.0). Available at: http://glmmadmb.r-forge.r-project.org/. Accessed August 20, 2017.
  33. The R Foundation, 2017. R: The R Project for Statistical Computing. Available at: https://www.r-project.org/. Accessed July 18, 2017.
  34. Bolker BM, Brooks ME, Clark CJ, Geange SW, Poulsen JR, Stevens MHH, White J-SS, , 2009. Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 24: 127135. [Google Scholar]
  35. Killeen GF, Kihonda J, Lyimo E, Oketch FR, Kotas ME, Mathenge E, Schellenberg JA, Lengeler C, Smith TA, Drakeley CJ, , 2006. Quantifying behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes: evaluating the protective efficacy of insecticidal nets against malaria transmission in rural Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis 6: 161. [Google Scholar]
  36. Fontenille D, Lochouarn L, Diagne N, Sokhna C, Lemasson JJ, Diatta M, Konate L, Faye F, Rogier C, Trape JF, , 1997. High annual and seasonal variations in malaria transmission by anophelines and vector species composition in Dielmo, a holoendemic area in Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56: 247253. [Google Scholar]
  37. Faye O, 1995. La sécheresse et la baisse du paludisme dans les Niayes du Sénégal. Cah Détudes Rech Francoph Santé 5: 299305. [Google Scholar]
  38. Mouchet J, Faye O, Julvez J, Manguin S, , 1996. Drought and malaria retreat in the Sahel, west Africa. Lancet 348: 17351736. [Google Scholar]
  39. World Health Organization, 2011. Guidelines for Monitoring the Durability of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Mosquito Nets under Operational Conditions. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  40. Wills AB, 2013. Physical durability of PermaNet 2.0 long-lasting insecticidal nets over three to 32 months of use in Ethiopia. Malar J 12: 242. [Google Scholar]
  41. Coetzee M, Hunt RH, Wilkerson R, Della Torre A, Coulibaly MB, Besansky NJ, , 2013. Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles amharicus, new members of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Zootaxa 3619: 246274. [Google Scholar]
  42. Fontaine MC, 2015. Extensive introgression in a malaria vector species complex revealed by phylogenomics. Science 347: 1258524. [Google Scholar]
  43. Killeen GF, Govella NJ, Lwetoijera DW, Okumu FO, , 2016. Most outdoor malaria transmission by behaviourally-resistant Anopheles arabiensis is mediated by mosquitoes that have previously been inside houses. Malar J 15: 225. [Google Scholar]
  44. Moiroux N, Damien GB, Egrot M, Djenontin A, Chandre F, Corbel V, Killeen GF, Pennetier C, , 2014. Human exposure to early morning Anopheles funestus biting behavior and personal protection provided by long-lasting insecticidal nets. PLoS One 9: e104967. [Google Scholar]
  45. Diop F, Richard V, Diouf B, Sokhna C, Diagne N, Trape JF, Faye MM, Tall A, Diop G, Balde AT, , 2014. Dramatic declines in seropositivity as determined with crude extracts of Plasmodium falciparum schizonts between 2000 and 2010 in Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal. Malar J 13: 83. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0009
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0009
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Materials

  • Received : 05 Jan 2017
  • Accepted : 27 Dec 2017
  • Published online : 19 Mar 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error