Volume 97, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Although there has been rapid growth in global health educational experiences over the last two decades, the flow of learners remains overwhelmingly one directional; providers from high-resourced settings travel to limited-resourced environments to participate in clinical care, education, and/or research. Increasingly, there has been a call to promote parity in partnerships, including the development of bidirectional exchanges, where trainees from each institution travel to the partner’s setting to learn from and teach each other. As global health educators and steering committee members of the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Global Health Pediatric Education Group, we endorse the belief that we must move away from merely sending learners to international partner sites and instead become true global health partners offering equitable educational experiences. In this article, we summarize the benefits, review common challenges, and highlight solutions to hosting and providing meaningful global health experiences for learners from limited-resourced partner institutions to academic health centers in the United States.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Koplan J, Bond TC, Merson M, Reddy KS, Rodriguez MH, Sewankambo NK, , 2009. Towards a common definition of global health. Lancet 373: 19931995.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Garfunkel LC, Howard CR, , 2011. Expand education in global health: it is time. Acad Pediatr 11: 260262.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Drain PK, Holmes KK, Skeff KM, Hall TL, Gardner P, , 2009. Global health training and international clinical rotations during residency: current status, needs, and opportunities. Acad Med 84: 320325.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Crump JA, Sugarman J, , 2010. Ethics and best practice guidelines for training experiences in global health. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 11781182.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Butteris SM, Schubert CJ, Batra M, Coller RJ, Garfunkel LC, Monticalvo D, Moore M, Arora G, Moore MA, Condurache T, Sweet LR, Hoyos C, Suchdev PS, , 2015. Global health education in US pediatric residency programs. Pediatrics 136: 458465.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Suchdev PS, Breiman RF, Stoll BJ, , 2014. Global child health: a call to collaborative action for academic health centers. JAMA Pediatr 168: 983984.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Pitt MB, Gladding SP, Majinge CR, Butteris SM, , 2016. Making global health rotations a two-way street: a model for hosting international residents. Global Pediatric Health. 3: 17.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Umoren RA, James JE, Litzelman DK, , 2012. Evidence of reciprocity in reports on international partnerships. Educ Res Int 2012: 603270.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Miranda JJ, Garcia PJ, Lescano AG, Gotuzzo E, Garcia HH, , 2011. Global health training–one way street? Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 506.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Bozinoff N, Dorman KP, Kerr D, Reobbelen E, Rogers E, Hunder A, O’Shea T, Kraeker C, , 2014. Toward reciprocity: host supervisor perspectives on international medical electives. Med Educ 48: 397404.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Farmer PE, Rhatigan JJ, , 2016. Embracing medical education’s global mission. Acad Med 91: 15921594.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Federico SG, Zachar PA, Oravec CM, Mandler T, Goldson E, Brown J, , 2006. A successful international child health elective. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 160: 191196.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Gladding S, Zink T, Howard C, Campagna A, Slusher T, John C, , 2012. International electives at the University of Minnesota global pediatric residency program: opportunities for education in all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. Acad Pediatr 12: 245250.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Thompson MJ, Huntington MK, Hunt DD, Pinsky LE, Brodie JJ, , 2003. Educational effects of international health electives on U.S. and Canadian medical students and residents: a literature review. Acad Med 78: 243247.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Umoren RA, Einterz RM, Litzelman DK, Pettigrew RK, Ayaya SO, Liechty EA, , 2014. Fostering reciprocity in global health partnerships through a structured, hands-on experience for visiting postgraduate medical trainees. J Grad Med Educ 6: 320325.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Sawatsky AP, Rosenman DJ, Merry SP, McDonald FS, , 2010. Eight years of the Mayo International Health Program: what an international elective adds to resident education. Mayo Clin Proc 85: 734741.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Wilson LL, Somerall D, Theus L, Rankin S, Ngoma C, Chimwaza A, , 2014. Enhancing global health and education in Malawi, Zambia, and the United States through and interprofessional global health exchange program. Appl Nurs Res 27: 97103.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Bodnar BE, Classen CW, Solomon J, Mayanja-Kizza H, Rastegar A, , 2015. The effect of a bidirectional exchange on faculty and institutional development in a global health collaboration. PLoS One 10: e0119798.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Lukolyo H, Rees CA, Keating EM, Swamy P, Schutze GE, Marton S, Turner T, , 2016. Perceptions and expectations of host country preceptors of short-term learners at four clinical sites in sub-Saharan Africa. Acad Pediatr 16: 387393.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Kraeker C, Chandler C, , 2013. “We learn from them, they learn from us” global health experiences and host perceptions of visiting health care professionals. Acad Med 88: 483487.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Evert J, Drain P, Hall T, , 2014. Developing Global Health Programming: A Guidebook for Medical and Professional Schools, 2nd edition. San Francisco, CA: Global Health Education Collaborations Press. [Google Scholar]
  22. Butteris SM, Gladding S, Eppich WJ, Hagen SA, Pitt MB, , 2014. Simulation use for global away rotations (SUGAR): preparing residents for emotional challenges abroad: a multicenter study. Acad Pediatr 14: 533541.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Pitt MB, Gladding SP, Butteris SM, , 2016. Using simulation for global health preparation. Pediatrics 137: e20154500.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Balmer D, Marton S, Gillespie SL, Schutze GE, Gill A, , 2015. Reentry to pediatric residency after global health experiences. Pediatrics 136: 680686.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Jordan J, Hoffman R, Arora G, Coates W, , 2016. Activated learning: providing structure in global health education at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA): a pilot study. BMC Med Educ 16: 63.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Nelson BRLA, Newby PK, Chamberlin MR, Huang C, , 2008. Global health training in pediatric residency programs. Pediatrics 122: 2833.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Herbst de Cortina SAG, Wells T, Hoffman RM, , 2016. Evaluation of a structured predeparture orientation at the David Geffen School of Medcine’s Global Health Education Programs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 94: 563567.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Abedini NCD-BS, Moyer CA, Danso KA, Mäkiharju H, Donkor P, Johnson TR, Kolars JC, , 2014. Perceptions of ghanaian medical students completing a clinical elective at the University of Michigan Medical School. Acad Med 89: 10141017.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Dacso MCA, Friedman H, , 2013. Adopting an ethical approach to global health training: the evolution of the Botswana: University of Pennsylvania partnership. Acad Med 88: 16461656.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Muula AS, , 2005. Is there any solution to the “brain drain” of health professionals and knowledge from Africa? Croat Med J 46: 2129. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Dec 2016
  • Accepted : 26 Feb 2017
  • Published online : 24 Apr 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error