1921
Volume 98, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

To assess the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices related to kala-azar in Madhepura district of Bihar, a community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in November 2014. A total of 353 households were interviewed from 24 villages of four blocks of Madhepura district. Data were collected using structured interview schedule. For knowledge, attitude, and preventive practice indexes, scores were assigned to individual questions based on the accuracy of responses. Univariate and binary logistic regressions were applied for the analysis. Eighty-four percent households had heard of kala-azar disease, but only 15.9% could recognize that sand flies were responsible for transmitting the disease. Overall, only 43.9% had fair knowledge on kala-azar disease (e.g., mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, and the outcome if left untreated) and the vector (breeding place, season, and biting time). Almost 48.6% had a favorable attitude toward treatability and management of kala-azar and 37.7% practiced proper mechanism to prevent and control kala-azar. Occupation emerged as a significant predictor for all three indexes. Other important predictors for the attitude index were literacy, household type, households ever had a kala-azar case, and knowledge index. Despite 61.8% of the households ever reported to have a member diagnosed with kala-azar, the overall knowledge of the disease and vector, attitude, and practices about prevention and control of kala-azar was found to be lagging. Therefore, our investigation suggests that further strengthening of comprehensive knowledge about kala-azar and preventive practices is needed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0978
2017-12-26
2019-12-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/98/3/tpmd160978.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0978&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alemu A, Alemu A, Esmael N, Dessie Y, Hamdu K, Mathewos B, Birhan W, , 2013. Knowledge, attitude and practices related to visceral leishmaniasis among residents in Addis Zemen town, south Gondar, northwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 13: 382. [Google Scholar]
  2. McGwire BS, Satoskar AR, , 2014. Leishmaniasis: clinical syndromes and treatment. QJM 107: 714. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ready PD, , 2014. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Epidemiol 3: 147154. [Google Scholar]
  4. Barrett MP, Croft SL, , 2012. Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Br Med Bull 104: 175196. [Google Scholar]
  5. Bogitsh BJ, Carter CE, Oeltmann TN, , 2013. Blood and tissue protozoa I: hemoflagellates. Human Parasitology, 4th edition. Waltham, MA: Academic Press, 85113.
  6. Hossain M, Jamil KM, , 2011. Geographical distribution of kala-azar in south Asia. Jha T, Noiri E, eds. Kala Azar in South Asia. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
  7. World Health Organization, 2014. Status of Vaccine Research and Development of Vaccines for leishmaniasis, Prepared for WHO PD-VAC. Available at: http://www.who.int/immunization/research/meetings_workshops/Leishmaniasis_vaccineRD_Sept2014.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2016.
  8. Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, den Boer M, WHO Leishmaniasis Control Team; , 2012. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One 7: e35671. [Google Scholar]
  9. Hotez PJ, Remme JH, Buss P, Alleyne G, Morel C, Breman JG, , 2004. Combating tropical infectious diseases: report of the disease control priorities in developing countries project. Clin Infect Dis 38: 871878. [Google Scholar]
  10. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), 2016. National Kala-Azar Elimination Program. New Delhi, India: National Vector Borne Disease Control Program, Director General of Health Services. Available at: http://nvbdcp.gov.in/kal13.html. Accessed March 16, 2016.
  11. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), 2016. Kala-Azar or Visceral leishmaniasis. New Delhi, India: National Vector Borne Disease Control Program, Director General of Health Services. Available at: http://nvbdcp.gov.in/kala-azar.html. Accessed March 16, 2016.
  12. Sunder S, More DK, Singh MK, Singh VP, Sharma S, Makharia A, Kumar PC, Murray HW, , 2000. Failure of pentavalent antimony in visceral leishmaniasis in India: report from the center of the Indian epidemic. Clin Infect Dis 31: 11041107. [Google Scholar]
  13. Govil D, Sahoo H, Pedgaonkar S, Das KC, , 2016. Magnitude of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Bihar with insights from Madhepura district. Artha Vijnana LVIII: 339348. [Google Scholar]
  14. Ostyn B, 2008. Vector control by insecticide-treated nets in the fight against visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent, what is the evidence? Trop Med Int Health 13: 10731085. [Google Scholar]
  15. Govil D, Sahoo H, Pedgaonkar S, Das KC, , 2016. Magnitude, Causes and Consequences of Kala-azar in India: A Study of Eastern Bihar. Unpublished report. Mumbai, India: International Institute for Population Sciences.
  16. Ghosh PP, , 2007. Poverty and Social Assessment: A District-Wise Study of Bihar. Asian Development Research Institute, Patna, India. Monograph (02/2007). Available at: http://brlp.in/documents/11369/125465/Poverty+and+Social+Assessment+-+A++districtwise+study+of+Bihar.pdf/8a3c0c07-7021-45c8-8dbb-cb5d6190a9e3. Accessed March 16, 2016.
  17. Directorate of Census Operations Bihar, 2014. District Census Handbook Madhepura: Village and Town Wise Primary Census Abstract (PCA), Series-11, Part Xii-B. Bihar, India: Census of India 2011.
  18. Bhunia GS, Kesari S, Chatterjee N, Kumar V, Das P, , 2012. Localization of kala-azar in the endemic region of Bihar, India based on land use/land cover assessment at different scales. Geospat Health 6: 177193. [Google Scholar]
  19. Singh SP, Reddy DCS, Mishra RN, Sundar S, , 2006. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to kala-azar in a rural area of Bihar State, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 505508. [Google Scholar]
  20. Mondal D, Singh SP, Kumar N, Joshi A, Sundar S, Das P, Siddhivinayak H, Kroeger A, Boelaert M, , 2009. Visceral leishmaniasis elimination programme in India, Bangladesh, and Nepal: reshaping the case finding/case management strategy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e355. [Google Scholar]
  21. Siddiqui NA, Kumar N, Ranjan A, Pandey K, Das VNR, Verma RB, Das P, , 2010. Awareness about kala-azar disease and related preventive attitudes and practices in a highly endemic rural area of India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41: 112. [Google Scholar]
  22. Hassan MM, Banaga AO, Frah EA, Nour BYM, , 2012. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice about sandfly and visceral leishmaniasis control activities in rural area of Gedarif state, Sudan. Al-Neelain Medical Journal 2: 4. [Google Scholar]
  23. Pardo RH, Carvajal A, Ferro C, Davies CR, , 2006. Effect of knowledge and economic status on sand fly control activities by householders at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the subandean region of Huila department, Colombia. Biomedica 26 (Suppl 1): 167179. [Google Scholar]
  24. Sarkari B, Qasem A, Shafaf MR, , 2014. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4: 566569. [Google Scholar]
  25. Ahluwalia IB, 2003. Visceral leishmaniasis: consequences of a neglected disease in a Bangladeshi community. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 624628. [Google Scholar]
  26. Singh R, Musa J, Singh S, Ebere UV, , 2014. Knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria among the rural communities in Aliero, northern Nigeria. J Family Med Prim Care 3: 3944. [Google Scholar]
  27. Dhawan G, Joseph N, Pekow PS, Rogers CA, Poudel KC, Bulzacchelli MT, , 2014. Malaria-related knowledge and prevention practices in four neighbourhoods in and around Mumbai, India: a cross-sectional study. Malar J 13: 303. [Google Scholar]
  28. Isa A, Loke YK, Smith JR, Papageorgiou A, Hunter PR, , 2013. Mediational effects of self-efficacy dimensions in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviour with respect to control of dengue outbreaks: a structural equation model of a cross-sectional survey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2401. [Google Scholar]
  29. Bowen HL, , 2013. Impact of a mass media campaign on bed net use in Cameroon. Malar J 12: 36. [Google Scholar]
  30. Boelaert M, Criel B, Leeuwenburg J, Van Damme W, Le Ray D, Van der Stuyft P, , 2000. Visceral leishmaniasis control: a public health perspective. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94: 465471. [Google Scholar]
  31. Mishra RN, Singh SP, Vanlerberghe V, Sundar S, Boelaert M, Lefèvre P, , 2010. Lay perceptions of kala-azar, mosquitoes and bed nets in Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health 15 (Suppl 2): 3641. [Google Scholar]
  32. Rijal S, Koirala S, Van der Stuyft P, Boelaert M, , 2006. The economic burden of visceral leishmaniasis for households in Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100: 838841. [Google Scholar]
  33. Gopalan SS, Das A, , 2009. Household economic impact of an emerging disease in terms of catastrophic out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure and loss of productivity: investigation of an outbreak of chikungunya in Orissa, India. J Vector Borne Dis 46: 5764. [Google Scholar]
  34. Hasker E, Singh SP, Malaviya P, Picado A, Gidwani K, Singh RP, Menten J, Boelaert M, Sundar S, , 2012. Visceral leishmaniasis in rural Bihar, India. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 16621664. [Google Scholar]
  35. Boelaert M, Meheus F, Sanchez A, Singh SP, Vanlerberghe V, Picado A, Meessen B, Sundar S, , 2009. The poorest of the poor: a poverty appraisal of households affected by visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health 14: 639644. [Google Scholar]
  36. Sudhakara S, Srinivasb T, Palitc A, Karc SK, Battacharya SK, , 2006. Mapping of risk prone areas of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) in parts of Bihar state, India: an RS and GIS approach. J Vector Borne Dis 43: 115122. [Google Scholar]
  37. Schlein Y, Jacobson RL, , 1999. Sugar meals and longevity of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi in an arid focus of Leishmania major in the Jordan Valley. Med Vet Entomol 13: 6571. [Google Scholar]
  38. Poché D, Garlapati R, Ingenloff K, Remmers J, Poché R, , 2011. Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies from three villages in Bihar, India. J Vector Ecol 36 (Suppl 1): S106S117. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0978
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0978
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 Dec 2016
  • Accepted : 19 Nov 2017
  • Published online : 26 Dec 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error