Volume 97, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Strongyloidiasis is an intestinal parasitic infection becoming increasingly important outside endemic areas, not only because of the high prevalence found in migrant populations, but also because immunosuppressed patients may suffer a potentially fatal disseminated disease. The aim of these guidelines is to provide evidence-based guidance for screening and treatment of strongyloidiasis in non-endemic areas. A panel of experts focused on three main clinical questions (who should be screened and how, how to treat), and reviewed pertinent literature available in international databases of medical literature and in documents released by relevant organizations/societies. A consensus of the experts’ opinion was sought when specific issues were not covered by evidence. In particular, six systematic reviews were retrieved and constituted the main support for this work. The evidence and consensus gathered led to recommendations addressing various aspects of the main questions. Grading of evidence and strength of recommendation were attributed to assess the quality of supporting evidence. The screening of individuals at risk of the infection should be performed before they develop any clinical complication. Moreover, in immunosuppressed patients, the screening should be mandatory. The screening is based on a simple and widely accessible technology and there is now a universally accepted treatment with a high efficacy rate. Therefore, the screening could be implemented as part of a screening program for migrants although further cost-effectiveness studies are required to better evaluate this strategy from a public health point of view.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Greaves D, Coggle S, Pollard C, Aliyu SH, Moore EM, , 2013. Strongyloides stercoralis infection. BMJ 347: f4610. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23900531. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  2. Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D, Montresor A, Requena-Méndez A, Muñoz J, Krolewiecki AJ, Gotuzzo E, Mena MA, Chiodini PL, Anselmi M, Moreira J, Albonico M, , 2013. Strongyloides stercoralis: a plea for action. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2214. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3649953&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed May 27, 2013.
  3. Buonfrate D, Angheben A, Gobbi F, Muñoz J, Requena-Mendez A, Gotuzzo E, Mena MA, Bisoffi Z, , 2012. Imported strongyloidiasis: epidemiology, presentations, and treatment. Curr Infect Dis Rep 14: 256262. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22322601. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  4. Montes M, Sawhney C, Barros N, , 2010. Strongyloides stercoralis: there but not seen. Curr Opin Infect Dis 23: 500504.
  5. Schär F, Trostdorf U, Giardina F, Khieu V, Muth S, Marti H, Vounatsou P, Odermatt P, , 2013. Strongyloides stercoralis: global distribution and risk factors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2288. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3708837&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed July 18, 2013.
  6. Gonzalez A, Gallo M, Valls ME, Munoz J, Puyol L, Pinazo MJ, Mas J, Gascon J, , 2010. Clinical and epidemiological features of 33 imported Strongyloides stercoralis infections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104: 613616. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20637483. Accessed August 3, 2015.
  7. Buonfrate D, Mena MA, Angheben A, Requena-Mendez A, Muñoz J, Gobbi F, Albonico M, Gotuzzo E, Bisoffi Z, , 2015. Prevalence of strongyloidiasis in Latin America: a systematic review of the literature. Epidemiol Infect 143: 452460. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990510. Accessed August 3, 2015.
  8. Requena-Méndez A, Buonfrate D, Bisoffi Z, Muñoz J, , 2014. Advances in the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Curr Trop Med Rep 1: 207–215.
  9. Viney ME, Lok JB, , 2015. The biology of Strongyloides spp. WormBook 16: 117. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26183912. Accessed December 23, 2015.
  10. Buonfrate D, Requena-Mendez A, Angheben A, Muñoz J, Gobbi F, Van Den Ende J, Bisoffi Z, , 2013. Severe strongyloidiasis: a systematic review of case reports. BMC Infect Dis 13: 78. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3598958&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  11. Keiser PB, Nutman TB, , 2004. Strongyloides stercoralis in the immunocompromised population. Clin Microbiol Rev 17: 208217. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=321465&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  12. Siegel MO, Simon GL, , 2012. Is human immunodeficiency virus infection a risk factor for Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection and dissemination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1581. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3409107&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed December 16, 2015.
  13. Gotuzzo E, Terashima A, Alvarez H, Tello R, Infante R, Watts DM, Freedman DO, , 1999. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with human T cell lymphotropic virus type-1 infection in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 146149. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9988339. Accessed December 16, 2015.
  14. Levi ME, Kumar D, Green M, Ison MG, Kaul D, Michaels MG, Morris MI, Schwartz BS, Echenique IA, Blumberg EA, , 2014. Considerations for screening live kidney donors for endemic infections: a viewpoint on the UNOS policy. Am J Transplant 14: 10031011. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24636427. Accessed September 18, 2015.
  15. Hamilton KW, Abt PL, Rosenbach MA, Bleicher MB, Levine MS, Mehta J, Montgomery SP, Hasz RD, Bono BR, Tetzlaff MT, Mildiner-Early S, Introcaso CE, Blumberg EA, , 2011. Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis infections in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 91: 10191024. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21358367. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  16. Roseman DA, Kabbani D, Kwah J, Bird D, Ingalls R, Gautam A, Nuhn M, Francis JM, , 2013. Strongyloides stercoralis transmission by kidney transplantation in two recipients from a common donor. Am J Transplant 13: 24832486. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3785548&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  17. Le M, Ravin K, Hasan A, Clauss H, Muchant DG, Pasko JK, Cipollina G, Abanyie F, Montgomery SP, Loy M, Ahmed M, Mathur M, Chokkalingam Mani B, Mehr J, Kotru A, Varma C, Maksimak M, Schultz M, Obradovic G, Alvarez R, Toyoda Y, Birkenbach M, Brunner E, Nelson J, , 2014. Single donor-derived strongyloidiasis in three solid organ transplant recipients: case series and review of the literature. Am J Transplant 14: 11991206. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24612907. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  18. Klinkenberg E, Manissero D, Semenza JC, Verver S, , 2009. Migrant tuberculosis screening in the EU/EEA: yield, coverage and limitations. Eur Respir J 34: 11801189. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19880618. Accessed April 24, 2015.
  19. Zhang D, Qi J, Fu X, Meng S, Li C, Sun J, , 2015. Case finding advantage of HIV rapid tests in community settings: men who have sex with men in 12 programme areas in China, 2011. Int J STD AIDS 26: 402413. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25028452. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  20. Buonfrate D, Baldissera M, Abrescia F, Bassetti M, Caramaschi G, Giobbia M, Mascarello M, Rodari P, Scattolo N, Napoletano G, Bisoffi Z; CCM Strongyloides Study Group, , 2016. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case-control study, February 2013 to July 2014. Euro Surveill 2016 Aug 4;21(31). doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.31.30310.
  21. Alcaraz CO, Adell RI, Sánchez PS, Blasco MJ, Sánchez OA, Auñón AS, Calabuig DR, 2004. Characteristics and geographical profile of strongyloidiasis in healthcare area 11 of the Valencian community (Spain). J Infect 49: 152158. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=alcaraz+2004+strongyloides. Accessed April 24, 2015.
  22. Requena-Méndez A, Chiodini P, Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D, Gotuzzo E, Muñoz J, , 2013. The laboratory diagnosis and follow up of strongyloidiasis: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2002. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3547839&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  23. Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D, Sequi M, Mejia R, Cimino RO, Krolewiecki AJ, Albonico M, Gobbo M, Bonafini S, Angheben A, Requena-Mendez A, Muñoz J, Nutman TB, , 2014. Diagnostic accuracy of five serologic tests for Strongyloides stercoralis infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2640. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3890421&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  24. Buonfrate D, Sequi M, Mejia R, Cimino RO, Krolewiecki AJ, Albonico M, Degani M, Tais S, Angheben A, Requena-Mendez A, Muñoz J, Nutman TB, Bisoffi Z, , 2015. Accuracy of five serologic tests for the follow up of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003491. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=4323101&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  25. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, AHRQ’s National Guideline Clearinghouse. Available at: https://www.guidelines.gov/. Accessed October 9, 2016.
  26. Buonfrate D, Angheben A, Gobbi F, Munoz J, Requena-Mendez A, Gotuzzo E, Mena MA, Bisoffi Z, , 2012. Imported strongyloidiasis: epidemiology, presentations, and treatment. Curr Infect Dis Rep 14: 256262. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22322601. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  27. Muennig P, Pallin D, Sell RL, Chan MS, , 1999. The cost effectiveness of strategies for the treatment of intestinal parasites in immigrants. N Engl J Med 340: 773779. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10072413. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  28. Muennig P, Pallin D, Challah C, Khan K, , 2004. The cost-effectiveness of ivermectin vs. albendazole in the presumptive treatment of strongyloidiasis in immigrants to the United States. Epidemiol Infect 132: 10551063. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2870196&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  29. Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D, Angheben A, Boscolo M, Anselmi M, Marocco S, Monteiro G, Gobbo M, Bisoffi G, Gobbi F, , 2011. Randomized clinical trial on ivermectin versus thiabendazole for the treatment of strongyloidiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1254.
  30. Checkley AM, Chiodini PL, Dockrell DH, Bates I, Thwaites GE, Booth HL, Brown M, Wright SG, Grant AD, Mabey DC, Whitty CJ, Sanderson F, , 2010. Eosinophilia in returning travellers and migrants from the tropics: UK recommendations for investigation and initial management. J Infect 60: 120. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19931558. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  31. Caruana SR, Kelly HA, Ngeow JY, Ryan NJ, Bennett CM, Chea L, Nuon S, Bak N, Skull SA, Biggs BA, , 2006. Undiagnosed and potentially lethal parasite infections among immigrants and refugees in Australia. J Travel Med 13: 233–239. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16884406. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  32. de Silva S, Saykao P, Kelly H, MacIntyre CR, Ryan N, Leydon J, Biggs BA, , 2002. Chronic Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Laotian immigrants and refugees 7–20 years after resettlement in Australia. Epidemiol Infect 128: 439444. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2869840&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  33. Mascarello M, Gobbi F, Angheben A, Gobbo M, Gaiera G, Pegoraro M, Lanzafame M, Buonfrate D, Concia E, Bisoffi Z, , 2011. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among HIV-positive immigrants attending two Italian hospitals, from 2000 to 2009. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 105: 617623. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=4089805&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  34. Baaten GG, Sonder GJ, van Gool T, Kint JA, van den Hoek A, , 2011. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia. BMC Infect Dis 11: 84. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21466667. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  35. Libman MD, MacLean JD, Gyorkos TW, , 1993. Screening for schistosomiasis, filariasis, and strongyloidiasis among expatriates returning from the tropics. Clin Infect Dis 17: 353359. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8218675. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  36. Marcos LA, Terashima A, Dupont HL, Gotuzzo E, , 2008. Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome: an emerging global infectious disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102: 314318. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18321548. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  37. Asdamongkol N, Pornsuriyasak P, Sungkanuparph S, , 2006. Risk factors for strongyloidiasis hyperinfection and clinical outcomes. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37: 875884. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17333728. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  38. Fardet L, Généreau T, Cabane J, Kettaneh A, , 2006. Severe strongyloidiasis in corticosteroid-treated patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 12: 945947. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16961629. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  39. Siddiqui AA, Berk SL, , 2001. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Clin Infect Dis 33: 10401047. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=11528578. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  40. Nielsen PB, Mojon M, , 1987. Improved diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis by seven consecutive stool specimens. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 263: 616618. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=3604502. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  41. Campo Polanco L, Gutiérrez LA, Cardona Arias J, , 2014. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection: meta-analysis on evaluation of conventional parasitological methods (1980–2013) [in Spanish]. Rev Esp Salud Publica 88: 581600. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25327268. Accessed July 28, 2015.
  42. Boscolo M, Gobbo M, Mantovani W, Degani M, Anselmi M, Monteiro GB, Marocco S, Angheben A, Mistretta M, Santacatterina M, Tais S, Bisoffi Z, , 2007. Evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for strongyloidiasis as a tool for diagnosis and follow-up. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14: 129133. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=17135451. Accessed July 28, 2015.
  43. Huaman MC, Sato Y, Aguilar JL, Terashima A, Guerra H, Gotuzzo E, Kanbara H, , 2003. Gelatin particle indirect agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis using Strongyloides venezuelensis antigen. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 535538. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=15307419. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  44. Silva LP, Barcelos IS, Passos-Lima AB, Espindola FS, Campos DM, Costa-Cruz JM, , 2003. Western blotting using Strongyloides ratti antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies as confirmatory test in human strongyloidiasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98: 687691. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12973538. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  45. Lindo JF, Conway DJ, Atkins NS, Bianco AE, Robinson RD, Bundy DA, , 1994. Prospective evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot methods for the diagnosis of endemic Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51: 175179. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8074251. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  46. Neva FA, Gam AA, Burke J, , 1981. Comparison of larval antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for strongyloidiasis in humans. J Infect Dis 144: 427432. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7031142. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  47. Mangali A, Chaicumpa W, Nontasut P, Chantavanij P, Tapchaisri P, Viravan C, , 1991. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Heal 22: 88–92. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=1948267. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  48. Loutfy MR, Wilson M, Keystone JS, Kain KC, , 2002. Serology and eosinophil count in the diagnosis and management of strongyloidiasis in a non-endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 749752. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12224585. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  49. van Doorn HR, Koelewijn R, Hofwegen H, Gilis H, Wetsteyn JC, Wismans PJ, Sarfati C, Vervoort T, van Gool T, , 2007. Use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dipstick assay for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in humans. J Clin Microbiol 45: 438442. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=17151215. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  50. Sudarshi S, Stumpfle R, Armstrong M, Ellman T, Parton S, Krishnan P, Chiodini PL, Whitty CJ, , 2003. Clinical presentation and diagnostic sensitivity of laboratory tests for Strongyloides stercoralis in travellers compared with immigrants in a non-endemic country. Trop Med Int Heal 8: 728–732. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12869094. Accessed June 25, 2013.
  51. Angheben A, Mistretta M, Gobbo M, Bonafini S, Iacovazzi T, Sepe A, Gobbi F, Marocco S, Rossanese A, Bisoffi Z, , 2011. Acute strongyloidiasis in Italian tourists returning from southeast Asia. J Travel Med 18: 138140. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366799. Accessed June 20, 2013.
  52. Luvira V, Trakulhun K, Mungthin M, Naaglor T, Chantawat N, Pakdee W, Phiboonbanakit D, Dekumyoy P, , 2016. Comparative diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 95: 401–404. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27296387. Accessed August 4, 2016.
  53. Henriquez-Camacho C, Gotuzzo E, Echevarria J, White AC, Terashima A, Samalvides F, Pérez-Molina JA, Plana MN, , 2016. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD007745. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778150. Accessed July 29, 2016.
  54. Pene P, Mojon M, Garin JP, Coulaud JP, Rossignol JF, , 1982. Albendazole: a new broad spectrum anthelmintic. Double-blind multicenter clinical trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31: 263266. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7041665. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  55. Singthong S, Intapan PM, Wongsaroji T, Maleewong W, , 2006. Randomized comparative trial of two high-dose albendazole regimens for uncomplicated human strongyloidiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37 (Suppl 3): 3234. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17547048. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  56. Datry A, Hilmarsdottir I, Mayorga-Sagastume R, Lyagoubi M, Gaxotte P, Biligui S, Chodakewitz J, Neu D, Danis M, Gentilini M, , 1994. Treatment of Strongyloides stercoralis infection with ivermectin compared with albendazole: results of an open study of 60 cases. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88: 344–345. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7974685. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  57. Marti H, Haji HJ, Savioli L, Chwaya HM, Mgeni AF, Ameir JS, Hatz C, , 1996. A comparative trial of a single-dose ivermectin versus three days of albendazole for treatment of Strongyloides stercoralis and other soil-transmitted helminth infections in children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55: 477481. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8940976. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  58. Toma H, Sato Y, Shiroma Y, Kobayashi J, Shimabukuro I, Takara M, , 2000. Comparative studies on the efficacy of three anthelminthics on treatment of human strongyloidiasis in Okinawa, Japan. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 31: 147151. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11023084. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  59. Nontasut P, Claesson BA, Dekumyoy P, Pakdee W, Chullawichit S, , 2005. Prevalence of Strongyloides in northern Thailand and treatment with ivermectin vs albendazole. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36: 442444. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15916052. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  60. Suputtamongkol Y, Premasathian N, Bhumimuang K, Waywa D, Nilganuwong S, Karuphong E, Anekthananon T, Wanachiwanawin D, Silpasakorn S, , 2011. Efficacy and safety of single and double doses of ivermectin versus 7-day high dose albendazole for chronic strongyloidiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1044. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3091835&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed July 29, 2015.
  61. Pitisuttithum P, Supanaranond W, Chindanond D, , 1995. A randomized comparative study of albendazole and thiabendazole in chronic strongyloidiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 26: 735738. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9139386. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  62. Gann PH, Neva FA, Gam AA, , 1994. A randomized trial of single- and two-dose ivermectin versus thiabendazole for treatment of strongyloidiasis. J Infect Dis 169: 10761079. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8169394. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  63. Adenusi A, Oke A, Adenusi A, , 2003. Comparison of ivermectin and thiabendazole in the treatment of uncomplicated human Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Afr J Biotechnol 2: 465–469.
  64. Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D, Angheben A, Boscolo M, Anselmi M, Marocco S, Monteiro G, Gobbo M, Bisoffi G, Gobbi F, , 2011. Randomized clinical trial on ivermectin versus thiabendazole for the treatment of strongyloidiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1254. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21814588. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  65. Mejia R, Nutman TB, , 2012. Screening, prevention, and treatment for hyperinfection syndrome and disseminated infections caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 25: 458463. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22691685. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  66. World Health Organization, 2008. WHO Model Formulary. Available at: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s16879e/s16879e.pdf. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  67. Multiple versus Single Dose of Ivermectin for the Treatment of Strongyloidiasis (STRONG TREAT). Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01570504?term=ivermectin&rank=10. Accessed October 31, 2015.
  68. Roxby AC, Gottlieb GS, Limaye AP, , 2009. Strongyloidiasis in transplant patients. Clin Infect Dis 49: 14111423. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2913967&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed October 31, 2015. Accessed October 31, 2015.
  69. Biggs BA, Caruana S, Mihrshahi S, Jolley D, Leydon J, Chea L, Nuon S, , 2009. Management of chronic strongyloidiasis in immigrants and refugees: is serologic testing useful? Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 788791. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19407125. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  70. Salvador F, Sulleiro E, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Saugar JM, Rodríguez E, Pahissa A, Molina I, , 2014. Usefulness of Strongyloides stercoralis serology in the management of patients with eosinophilia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 830834. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=4015573&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed August 13, 2015.
  71. Page WA, Dempsey K, McCarthy JS, , 2006. Utility of serological follow-up of chronic strongyloidiasis after anthelminthic chemotherapy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100: 10561062. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=16551471. Accessed October 31, 2015.
  72. Suputtamongkol Y, Kungpanichkul N, Silpasakorn S, Beeching NJ, , 2008. Efficacy and safety of a single-dose veterinary preparation of ivermectin versus 7-day high-dose albendazole for chronic strongyloidiasis. Int J Antimicrob Agents 31: 4649. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18023151. Accessed September 18, 2015.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 24 Nov 2016
  • Accepted : 10 May 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error