Volume 97, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



A syphilis outbreak began in Martinique, French Antilles, in 2004, initially among men who had sex with men (MSM) and who were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The outbreak subsequently affected all groups at risk, leading to a first epidemic peak in 2008. After an initial decrease, the outbreak started growing again in 2014 among patients living with HIV with unprecedented incidence among MSM. Herein, we describe the change in medical and social parameters of the outbreak since 2005.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Pugliese P, Cuzin L, Cabié A, Poizot-Martin I, Allavena C, Duvivier C, El Guedj M, de la Tribonnière X, Valantin MA, Dellamonica P, Nadis Group, 2009. A large French prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients: the Nadis Cohort. HIV Med 10: 504511. [Google Scholar]
  2. Fenton KA, Breban R, Vardavas R, Okano JT, Martin T, Aral S, Blower S, , 2008. Infectious syphilis in high-income settings in the 21st century. Lancet Infect Dis 8: 244253. [Google Scholar]
  3. Cabié A, Rollin B, Pierre-François S, Abel S, Desbois N, Richard P, Hochedez P, Théodose R, Quist D, Hélénon R, Derancourt C, Cavelier A, Liautaud B, , 2010. Reemergence of syphilis in Martinique, 2001–2008. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 106109. [Google Scholar]
  4. Figueroa JP, Brathwaite A, Ward E, DuCasse M, Tscharf I, Nembhard O, Williams E, , 1995. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Jamaica. AIDS 9: 761768. [Google Scholar]
  5. Chow EPF, Wilson DP, Zhang L, , 2011. HIV and syphilis co-infection increasing among men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 6: e22768. [Google Scholar]
  6. Kahn RH, Heffelfinger JD, Berman SM, , 2002. Syphilis outbreaks among men who have sex with men: a public health trend of concern. Sex Transm Dis 29: 285287. [Google Scholar]
  7. Zoni AC, González MA, Sjögren HW, , 2013. Syphilis in the most at-risk populations in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review. Int J Infect Dis 17: e84e92. [Google Scholar]
  8. Wolitski RJ, Valdiserri RO, Denning PH, Levine WC, , 2001. Are we headed for a resurgence of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men? Am J Public Health 91: 883888. [Google Scholar]
  9. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 1984. Syphilis: United States, 1983. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 33: 433436. [Google Scholar]
  10. Stall RD, Hays RB, Waldo CR, Ekstrand M, McFarland W, , 2000. The Gay '90s: a review of research in the 1990s on sexual behavior and HIV risk among men who have sex with men. AIDS 14 (Suppl 3): S101S114. [Google Scholar]
  11. Kravcik S, Victor G, Houston S, Sutherland D, Garber GE, Hawley-Foss N, Angel JB, Cameron DW, , 1998. Effect of antiretroviral therapy and viral load on the perceived risk of HIV transmission and the need for safer sexual practices. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 19: 124129. [Google Scholar]
  12. Strauss BB, Greene GJ, Phillips G, Bhatia R, Madkins K, Parsons JT, Mustanski B, , 2016. Exploring patterns of awareness and use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among young men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav 21: 12881298. [Google Scholar]
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2003. Internet use and early syphilis infection among men who have sex with men: San Francisco, California, 1999–2003. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52: 12291232. [Google Scholar]
  14. Morlat P, , 2013. Prise en charge médicale des personnes vivant avec le VIH. Recommandations du groupe d'experts. Rapport 2013. Available at: http://www.sante.gouv.fr/rapport-2013-sur-la-prise-en-charge-medicale-des-personnes-vivant-avec-le-vih.html. Accessed September 20, 2016.
  15. Fleming DT, Wasserheit JN, , 1999. From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sex Transm Infect 75: 317. [Google Scholar]
  16. Roberts CP, Klausner JD, , 2016. Global challenges in human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis co-infection among men who have sex with men. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 14: 10371046. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 20 Sep 2016
  • Accepted : 23 Jan 2017
  • Published online : 31 Jul 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error