Volume 96, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Reducing barriers associated with maternal health service use, household water treatment, and improved hygiene is important for maternal and neonatal health outcomes. We surveyed a sample of 201 pregnant women who participated in a clinic-based intervention in Kenya to increase maternal health service use and improve household hygiene and nutrition through the distribution of water treatment products, soap, protein-fortified flour, and clean delivery kits. From multivariable logistic regression analyses, the adjusted odds of ≥ 4 antenatal care (ANC4+) visits (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9–4.5), health facility delivery (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 3.4–8.3), and any postnatal care visit (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.9–4.2) were higher at follow-up than at baseline, adjusting for demographic factors. Women who completed primary school had higher odds of ANC4+ visits (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1–2.9) and health facility delivery (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.5–7.1) than women with less education. For women who lived ≤ 2.5 km from the health facility, the estimated odds of health facility delivery (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.5–4.1) and postnatal care visit (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0–2.6) were higher than for those who lived > 2.5 km away. Compared with baseline, a higher percentage of survey participants at follow-up were able to demonstrate proper handwashing ( = 0.001); water treatment behavior did not change. This evaluation suggested that hygiene, nutritional, clean delivery incentives, higher education level, and geographical contiguity to health facility were associated with increased use of maternal health services by pregnant women.


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  • Received : 29 Aug 2016
  • Accepted : 13 Dec 2016
  • Published online : 13 Feb 2017

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