Volume 97 Number 4_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Consumption of drinking water from private vendors has increased considerably in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in recent decades. A major type of vendor is private kiosks, advertising reverse osmosis-treated water for sale by volume. To describe the scale and geographical distribution of private kiosks in metropolitan Port-au-Prince, an inventory of private kiosks was conducted from July to August 2013. Coordinates of kiosks were recorded with global positioning system units and a brief questionnaire was administered with the operator to document key kiosk characteristics. To assess the quality of water originating from private kiosks, water quality analyses were also conducted on a sample of those inventoried as well as from the major provider company sites. The parameters tested were , free chlorine residual, pH, turbidity, and total dissolved solids. More than 1,300 kiosks were inventoried, the majority of which were franchises of four large provider companies. Approximately half of kiosks reported opening within 12 months of the date of the inventory. The kiosk treatment chain and sales price was consistent among a majority of the kiosks. Of the 757 kiosks sampled for water quality, 90.9% of samples met World Health Organization (WHO) microbiological guideline at the point of sale for nondetectable in a 100-mL sample. Of the eight provider company sites tested, all samples met the WHO microbiological guideline. Because of the increasing role of the private sector in drinking water provision in Port-au-Prince and elsewhere in Haiti, this assessment was an important first step for government regulation of this sector.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. DHS, 2001. Haiti DHS, 2000 Final Report (French). Available at: http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR121/FR121.pdf. Accessed February 22, 2016.
  2. DHS, 2013. Measure DHS—Haiti: DHS 2012-Final Report (French).Available at: http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR273/FR273.pdf. Accessed March 13, 2016.
  3. Patrick M, Berendes D, Murphy J, Bertrand F, Husain F, Handzel T, , 2013. Access to safe water in rural Artibonite, Haiti 16 months after the onset of the cholera epidemic. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 647653. [Google Scholar]
  4. DHS, 2007. Haiti DHS, 2005–2006 Final Report (French). Available at: http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR192/FR192.pdf. Accessed February 22, 2016.
  5. Beau de Rochars VEM, , 2011. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to treatment and prevention of cholera, Haiti, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 21582161. [Google Scholar]
  6. OpenStreetMap contributors. (n.d.). Open Street Map. Available at: http://www.openstreetmap.org. Accessed February 22, 2016.
  7. Microsoft, (n.d.). Available at: http://www.bing.com/maps/. Accessed February 22, 2016.
  8. Global Adult Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group, 2010. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) Mapping and Listing Manual, Version 2.0. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [Google Scholar]
  9. USAID, MEASURE DHS, ICF International, 2012. Demographic and Health Survey Sampling and Household Listing Manual. Calverton, MD: ICF International. [Google Scholar]
  10. CDC, 2012. Manuel de Cartographie et Listing, Version 2.0. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [Google Scholar]
  11. Institut Haitien de Statistique et d’Informatique (IHSI), 2011. Population Totale, Population De 18 Ans et Plus, Menages et Densites Estimes en 2012. Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Direction Des Statistiques Demographiques et Sociales.
  12. Howard G, Bartram J, , 2003. Domestic Water Quantity, Service Level and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  13. World Bank, 2016. GDP Per Capita (Current US$). Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD. Accessed April 25, 2016.
  14. World Health Organization, 2011. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 4th edition. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. [Google Scholar]
  15. Sima L, Elimelech M, , 2013. More than a drop in the bucket: decentralized membrane-based drinking water refill stations in southest Asia. Environ Sci Technol 47: 75807588. [Google Scholar]
  16. Magtibay B, , 2004. Water refilling station: an alternative source of drinking water supply in the Philippines, 590–593. 30th WEDC International Conference. Vientiane, Lao PDR.
  17. Safe Water Network, 2012. Decentralized Safe Water Kiosks: Working Toward a Sustainable Model in Ghana. Accra, Ghana: Safe Water Network. [Google Scholar]
  18. WaterHealth International, 2011. WaterHealth International: About Us Brochure. vailable at: http://www.waterhealth.com/sites/default/files/WHI_Brochure_2.pdf. Accessed January 21, 2016.
  19. UNDP, 2011. Small-Scale Water Providers in Kenya: Pioneers or Predators? New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme. [Google Scholar]
  20. Aquaya Institute, 2016. Water Business Kits. Available at: http://www.aquaya.org/project/water-business-kits/. Accessed June 12, 2016.
  21. Sima L, Elimelech M, Selendy JM, , 2011. Informal Small-Scale Water Services in Developing Countries: The Business of Water for Those without Formal Municipal Connections. In , ed. Water and Sanitation-Related Diseases and the Environment: Challenges, Interventions, and Preventive Measures. Wiley-Blackwell. [Google Scholar]
  22. Opryszko M, Huang H, Soderlund K, Schwab K, , 2009. Data gaps in evidence-based research on small water enterprises in developing countries. J Water Health 7: 609622. [Google Scholar]
  23. Fisher M, Williams A, Jalloh M, Saquee G, Bain R, Bartram J, , 2015. Microbiological and chemical quality of packaged sachet water and household stored drinking water in Freetown, Sierra Leone. PLoS One 10: e0131772. [Google Scholar]
  24. Stoler J, Tutu R, Ahmed H, Frimpong L, Bello M, , 2014. Sachet water quality and brand reputation in two low-income urban communities in Greater Accra, Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 272278. [Google Scholar]
  25. Oyelude E, Ahenkorah S, , 2012. Quality of sachet water and bottled water in Bolgatanga Municipality of Ghana. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 4: 10941098. [Google Scholar]
  26. Schafer A, Hughes G, Richards B, , 2014. Renewable energy powered membrane technology: a leapfrog approach to rural water treatment in developing countries? Renew Sustain Energy Rev 40: 542556. [Google Scholar]
  27. Peter-Varbanets M, Zurbruff C, Swartz C, Pronk W, , 2009. Decentralized systems for potable water and the potential of membrane technology. Water Res 43: 245265. [Google Scholar]
  28. Sima L, Desai M, McCarty K, Elimelech M, , 2012. Relationship between use of water from community-scale water treatment refill kiosks and childhood diarrhea in Jakarta. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 979984. [Google Scholar]
  29. Opryszko M, Guo Y, MacDonald L, MacDonald L, Kiihl S, Schwab K, , 2013. Impact of water-vending kiosks and hygiene education on household drinking water quality in rural Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 651660. [Google Scholar]
  30. Wright J, Gundry S, Conroy R, , 2004. Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use. Trop Med Int Health 9: 106117. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 24 Aug 2016
  • Accepted : 22 May 2017
  • Published online : 18 Oct 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error