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FN1Financial support: These studies received financial support from the END Fund, and the University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc., which was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for the SCORE project.
FN2Authors' addresses: Giuseppina Ortu, Malaria Consortium Headquarters, London, United Kingdom, E-mail: email@example.com. Onésime Ndayishimiye, END Fund, Luanda, Angola, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Michelle Clements, Antonio Ziveria, and Alan Fenwick, Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI), Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Donatien Kayugi, Programme National Intégré de lutte contre les Maladies Tropicales Négligées et la Cécité (PNIMTNC), Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Lutte contre le SIDA, Bujumbura, Burundi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Carl H. Campbell Jr, Sue Binder, and Daniel G. Colley, Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases (CTEGD), University of Georgia, Athens, GA, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Mariama Sani Lamine, World Health Organization (WHO), Libreville, Gabon, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Ricardo Soares Magalhaes, School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Gatton, Australia, and Children's Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland, South Brisbane, Australia, E-mail: email@example.com. Charles H. King, Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases (CTEGD), University of Georgia, Athens, GA, and Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Peter Mark Jourdan, DeWorm3, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom, E-mail: email@example.com.
- The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,
- Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 96, Issue 3, Mar 2017, p. 664 - 673
oa Countrywide Reassessment of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Burundi Using a Urine-Circulating Cathodic Antigen Rapid Test: Informing the National Control Program
Following implementation of the national control program, a reassessment of Schistosoma mansoni prevalence was conducted in Burundi to determine the feasibility of moving toward elimination. A countrywide cluster-randomized cross-sectional study was performed in May 2014. At least 25 schools were sampled from each of five eco-epidemiological risk zones for schistosomiasis. Fifty randomly selected children 13–14 years of age per school were included for a single urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) rapid test and, in a subset of schools, for duplicate Kato-Katz slide preparation from a single stool sample. A total of 17,331 children from 347 schools were tested using CCA. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection, when CCA trace results were considered negative, was 13.5% (zone range [zr] = 4.6–17.8%), and when CCA trace results were considered positive, it was 42.8% (zr = 34.3–49.9%). In 170 schools, prevalence of this infection determined using Kato-Katz method was 1.5% (zr = 0–2.7%). The overall mean intensity of S. mansoni infection determined using Kato-Katz was 0.85 eggs per gram (standard deviation = 10.86). A majority of schools (84%) were classified as non-endemic (prevalence = 0) using Kato-Katz; however, a similar proportion of schools were classified as endemic when CCA trace results were considered negative (85%) and nearly all (98%) were endemic when CCA trace results were considered positive. The findings of this nationwide reassessment using a CCA rapid test indicate that Schistosoma infection is still widespread in Burundi, although its average intensity is probably low. Further evidence is now needed to determine the association between CCA rapid test positivity and low-intensity disease transmission.
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