Volume 97 Number 4_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Research provides the essential foundation of disease elimination programs, including the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (GPELF). The development and validation of new diagnostic tools and intervention strategies, critical steps in the evolution of GPELF, required a global effort. Lymphatic filariasis research in Haiti involved many partners and was directly linked to the development of the national elimination program and to the success achieved to date. Ongoing research efforts involving many partners will continue to be important in resolving the challenges faced by the program today in its final efforts to achieve elimination.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Oscar R, ., 2014. Haiti national program for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis: a model of success in the face of adversity. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2915.
  2. Lemoine JF, ., 2016. Controlling Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Haiti: implementation strategies and evidence of their success. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10 : e0004954.
  3. Ichimori K, King J, Engels D, Yajima A, Mikhailov A, Lammie P, Ottesen E, , 2014. Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: the processes underlying programme success. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3328.
  4. Lowrie RC, Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ, Raccurt CP, Katz SP, Duverseau YT, , 1989. Uptake and development of Wuchereria bancrofti in Culex quinquefasciatus that fed on Haitian carriers with different microfilaria densities. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41: 429435.
  5. Eberhard ML, Lowrie RC, Lammie PJ, , 1988. Persistence of microfilariae in Wuchereria bancrofti carriers following DEC-C treatment. Trop Med Parasitol 39: 128130.
  6. Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ, Dickinson CM, Roberts JM, , 1991. Evidence of nonsusceptibility to diethylcarbamazine in Wuchereria bancrofti. J Infect Dis 163: 11571160.
  7. Eberhard ML, Dickerson JW, Hightower AW, Lammie PJ, , 1991. Bancroftian filariasis: long term effects of treatment with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in a Haitian population. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45: 728733.
  8. Lammie PJ, Hitch WL, Walker EM, Hightower AW, Eberhard ML, , 1991. Maternal infection as a risk factor for infection in offspring. Lancet 337: 10051006.
  9. Hightower AW, Lammie PJ, Eberhard ML, , 1993. Maternal filarial infection—a persistent risk factor for infection in offspring? Parasitol Today 9: 418421.
  10. Sasa M, , 1976. Human Filariasis. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.
  11. Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ, Roberts JM, Lowrie RC, , 1989. Effectiveness of spaced doses of diethylcarbamazine citrate in the control of bancroftian filariasis. Trop Med Parasitol 40: 111113.
  12. Richards FO, Eberhard ML, Bryan R, McNeeley DF, Lammie PJ, McNeeley MB, Bernard Y, Hightower AW, Spencer HC, , 1991. Comparison of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for adulticidal activity in Haitian bancroftian filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44: 310.
  13. Addiss DG, Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ, Hitch WL, Spencer HC, , 1991. Tolerance of single high-dose ivermectin for treatment of lymphatic filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85: 256257.
  14. Eberhard ML, Hightower AW, McNeeley DF, Lammie J, , 1992. Long-term suppression of microfilaremia following ivermectin treatment. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med 86: 287288.
  15. Addiss DG, Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ, McNeeley MB, Lee SH, McNeeley DM, Spencer HC, , 1993. Comparative trial of clearing-dose and single high-dose ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for treatment of lymphatic filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48: 178185.
  16. Jayakody RL, De Silva CS, Weerasinghe WM, , 1993. Treatment of bancroftian filariasis with albendazole: evaluation of efficacy and adverse reactions. Trop Biomed 10: 1924.
  17. Addiss DG, Beach MJ, Streit TG, Lutwick S, LeConte FH, Lafontant JG, Lammie PJ, , 1997. Randomised placebo-controlled comparison of ivermectin and albendazole alone and in combination for Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia in Haitian children. Lancet 350: 480484.
  18. Beach MJ, Streit TG, Addiss DG, Prospere R, Roberts JM, Lammie PJ, , 1999. Assessment of combined ivermectin and albendazole for treatment of intestinal helminth and Wuchereria bancrofti infections in Haitian school children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 479486.
  19. Fox LM, Furness BW, Hase JK, Dardith D, Brissau J-M, Milord MD, Lafontant JG, Addiss DG, Lammie P, Beach MJ, , 2005. Tolerance and efficacy of combined diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti and intestinal helminth infections in Haitian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 : 115121.
  20. Molyneux DH, Hotez PJ, Fenwick A, , 2005. “Rapid-impact interventions”: how a policy of integrated control for Africa’s neglected tropical diseases could benefit the poor. PLoS Med 11: e336.
  21. Hotez PJ, Molyneux DH, Fenwick A, Kumaresan J, Sachs SE, Sachs JD, Savioli L, , 2007. Control of neglected tropical diseases. N Engl J Med 357: 10181027 [Review].
  22. Hotez PJ, Fenwick A, Savioli L, Molyneux DH, , 2009. Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet 373: 15701575 [Review].
  23. More SJ, Copeman DB, , 1990. A highly specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen in bancroftian filariasis. Trop Med Parasitol 41: 403406.
  24. Ramzy RM, Gad AM, Faris R, Weil GJ, , 1991. Evaluation of a monoclonal-antibody based antigen assay for diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44: 691695.
  25. Weil GJ, Lammie PJ, Richards FO, Jr Eberhard ML, , 1991. Changes in circulating parasite antigen levels after diethylcarbamazine treatment of bancroftian filariasis. J Infect Dis 164: 814816.
  26. Lammie PJ, Addiss DG, Leonard G, Hightower AW, Eberhard ML, , 1993. Heterogeneity in filarial specific immune responsiveness among patients with lymphatic obstruction. J Infect Dis 167: 11781183.
  27. Lammie PJ, Hightower AW, Eberhard ML, , 1994. The age-specific prevalence of antigenemia in a Wuchereria bancrofti-exposed population. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51: 348355.
  28. Addiss DG, Dimock KA, Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ, , 1995. Clinical, parasitologic and immunologic observations of patients with hydrocele and elephantiasis in an area with endemic lymphatic filariasis. J Infect Dis 171: 755758.
  29. Eberhard ML, Hightower AW, Addiss DG, Lammie PJ, , 1997. Clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti antigen after treatment with diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 483486.
  30. Lammie PJ, Reiss MD, Dimock KA, Streit TG, Roberts JM, Eberhard ML, , 1998. Longitudinal analysis of the development of filarial infection and antifilarial immunity in a cohort of Haitian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 217221.
  31. Weil GJ, Lammie PJ, Weiss N, , 1997. The ICT filariasis test: a rapid format antigen test for diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. Parasitol Today 13: 401404.
  32. Beau de Rochars MV, Milord MD, St Jean Y, Désormeaux AM, Dorvil JJ, Lafontant JG, Addiss DG, Streit TG, , 2004. Geographic distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 598601.
  33. Drexler N, Washington C, Lovegrove M, Grady C, Milord MD, Streit T, Lammie P, , 2012. Secondary mapping of lymphatic filariasis in Haiti: definition of transmission foci in low prevalence settings. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1807.
  34. McLaughlin SI, Radday J, Michel MC, Addiss DG, Beach MJ, Lammie PJ, Lammie J, Rheingans R, Lafontant J, , 2003. Frequency, severity and costs of adverse reactions following mass treatment for lymphatic filariasis using diethylcarbamazine and albendazole, Leogane, Haiti, 2000. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 568573.
  35. Horton J, ., 2000. An analysis of the safety of the single dose, two drug regimens used in programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Parasitology 121: S147S160.
  36. Beau de Rochars M, Direny AD, Roberts JM, Addiss DG, Radday J, Beach MJ, Streit TG, Dardith D, Lafontant J, Lammie PJ, , 2004. Community-wide reduction in prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths as a collateral benefit of lymphatic filariasis elimination programs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 466470.
  37. Beau de Rochars MVE, Streit TG, Desir L, Oscar R, Lemoine JF, Keller A, Lammie PJ, Purcell N, Deming MS, . 2013. Mass drug administration for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis: Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2011–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62: 466468.
  38. Mathieu E, Deming M, Lammie P, McLaughlin S, Beach M, Deodat DJ, Addiss D, , 2003. Comparison of methods for estimating drug coverage for filariasis elimination, Leogane, Haiti. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 501505.
  39. Beau de Rochars M, ., 2005. The Leogane, Haiti demonstration project: decreased microfilaremia and program costs after three years of mass drug administration. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 888894.
  40. Mathieu E, Direny A, Streit T, Beau de Rochars M, Addiss D, Lammie P, , 2006. Trends in participation in three consecutive mass drug administrations in Leogane, Haiti. Trop Med Int Health 11: 862868.
  41. Hochberg N, Michel MC, Lammie PJ, Mathieu E, Direny AN, Beau de Rochars M, Addiss DG, , 2006. Symptoms reported after mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti: lack of association with filarial infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 928932.
  42. Goodman DS, Orelus JN, Roberts JM, Lammie PJ, Streit TG, , 2003. PCR and mosquito dissection as tools to monitor filarial infection levels following mass treatment. Filaria J 2: 11.
  43. Grady CA, ., 2007. Endpoints for lymphatic filariasis programs. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 608610.
  44. Won KY, Beau de Rochars M, Kyelem D, Streit TG, Lammie PJ, , 2009. Assessing the impact of a missed MDA in Haiti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e443.
  45. Mathieu E, Lammie PJ, Radday J, Montilus W, Beach MJ, Streit T, Wendt J, Addiss DG, , 2004. What influenced people to participate in a mass treatment campaign against lymphatic filariasis? Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98: 703714.
  46. Talbot JT, Viall A, Direny AN, Beau de Rochars MVE, Addiss DG, Streit T, Mathieu E, Lammie PJ, , 2008. Predictors of compliance in mass drug administration for the prevention and treatment of lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 283288.
  47. Boyd A, ., 2010. Factors associated with continuing transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e640.
  48. Gass K, ., 2012. A multicenter evaluation of diagnostic tools to define endpoints for programs to eliminate Bancroftian filariasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1479.
  49. World Health Organization, 2011. Monitoring and Epidemiological Assessment of Mass Drug Administration in the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: A Manual for National Elimination Programmes. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  50. Knipes A, ., 2017. Partnering for impact: integrated transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis, soil transmitted helminths and malaria in Haiti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11: e0005387.
  51. Baird JB, Lammie PJ, Louis Charles J, Streit TG, Addiss DG, , 2002. Reactivity to bacterial, fungal, and parasite antigens in patients with lymphedema and elephantiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 163169.
  52. Dreyer G, Medeiros Z, Netto MJ, Leal NC, de Castro LG, Piessens WF, , 1999. Acute attacks in the extremities of persons living in an area endemic for bancroftian filariasis: differentiation of two syndromes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93: 413417.
  53. Fox LM, Wilson SF, Addiss DG, Louis-Charles J, Beau de Rochars MV, Lammie PJ, , 2005. Clinical correlates of filarial infection in Haitian children: an association with interdigital lesions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 759765.
  54. Dreyer G, Addiss D, Gadelha P, Lapa E, Williamson J, Dreyer A, , 2006. Interdigital skin lesions of the lower limbs among patients with lymphoedema in an area endemic for bancroftian filariasis. Trop Med Int Health 11: 14751481.
  55. Addiss DG, Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ, , 1994. “Filarial” adenolymphangitis without filarial infection. Lancet 343: 597.
  56. Dreyer G, Norões J, Figueredo-Silva J, , 2000. New insights into the natural history and pathology of bancroftian filariasis: implications for clinical management and filariasis control programmes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94: 594596.
  57. Dreyer G, Addiss DG, Dreyer P, Noroes J, , 2002. Basic Lymphedema Management. Treatment and Prevention of Problems Associated with Lymphatic Filariasis. Hollis, NH: Hollis Publishing Company.
  58. Dreyer G, Norões J, Mattos D, , 2006. Hope clubs as adjunct therapeutic measure in bancroftian filariasis endemic areas. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 39: 365369.
  59. Wilson SF, Guarner J, Valme AL, Louis-Charles J, Jones TL, Addiss DG, , 2004. Histopathologic improvement with lymphedema management, Léogâne, Haiti. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 19381946.
  60. Addiss DG, Louis-Charles J, Roberts J, LeConte F, Wendt JM, Milord MD, Lammie PJ, Dreyer G, , 2010. Feasibility and effectiveness of basic lymphedema management in Leogane, Haiti, an area endemic for Bancroftian filariasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e668.
  61. Addiss DG, Michel MC, Michelus A, Radday J, Billhimer W, Louis-Charles J, Roberts JM, Kramp K, Dahl BA, Keswick B, , 2011. Evaluation of antibacterial soap in the management of lymphoedema in Leogane, Haiti. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105: 5860.
  62. Seim AR, Dreyer G, Addiss DG, , 1999. Controlling morbidity and interrupting transmission: twin pillars of lymphatic filariasis elimination. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 32: 325328.
  63. Freeman AR, Lammie PJ, Houston R, Jooste PL, Lapointe MD, Streit TG, Brissau JM, Lafontant J, Addiss DG, , 2001. A community-based trial for the control of lymphatic filariasis and iodine deficiency using salt fortified with diethylcarbamazine and iodine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 865871.
  64. Thomsen EK, ., 2016. Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of coadministered diethylcarbamazine, albendazole, and ivermectin for treatment of Bancroftian filariasis. Clin Infect Dis 62: 334341.
  65. Hamlin KL, Moss DM, Priest JW, Roberts J, Kubofcik J, Gass K, Streit TG, Nutman TB, Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ, , 2012. Longitudinal monitoring of the development of antifilarial antibodies and acquisition of Wuchereria bancrofti in a highly endemic area of Haiti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1941.
  66. Lammie PJ, Moss DM, Goodhew EB, Hamlin K, Krolewiecki A, West SK, Priest JW, , 2012. Development of a new diagnostic platform for NTD surveillance. Int J Parasitol 42: 797800.
  • Received : 16 Aug 2016
  • Accepted : 28 Sep 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error