1921
Volume 97 Number 4_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Haiti, a Caribbean country of 10.5 million people, is estimated to have the highest burden of canine-mediated human rabies deaths in the Western Hemisphere, and one of the highest rates of human rabies deaths in the world. Haiti is also the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and has numerous economic and health priorities that compete for rabies-control resources. As a result, primary rabies-control actions, including canine vaccination programs, surveillance systems for human and animal rabies, and appropriate postbite treatment, have not been fully implemented at a national scale. After the 2010 earthquake that further hindered the development of public health program infrastructure and services, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention worked with the Ministry of Public Health and Population and key health development partners (including the Pan-American Health Organization) to provide technical expertise and funding for general disease surveillance systems, laboratory capacity, and selected disease control programs; including rabies. In 2011, a cross-ministerial rabies consortium was convened with participation from multiple international rabies experts to develop a strategy for successful rabies control in Haiti. The consortium focused on seven pillars: 1) enhancement of laboratory diagnostic capacity, 2) development of comprehensive animal surveillance system, 3) development of comprehensive human rabies surveillance system, 4) educational outreach, 5) sustainable human rabies biologics supply, 6) achievement of sustained canine vaccination rates of ≥ 70%, and 7) finalization of a national rabies control strategy. From 2010 until 2015, Haiti has seen improvements in the program infrastructure for canine rabies control. The greatest improvements were seen in the area of animal rabies surveillance, in support of which an internationally recognized rabies laboratory was developed thereby leading to an 18-fold increase in the detection of rabid animals. Canine rabies vaccination practices also improved, from a 2010 level of approximately 12% to a 2015 dog population coverage level estimated to be 45%. Rabies vaccine coverage is still below the goal of 70%, however, the positive trend is encouraging. Gaps exist in the capacity to conduct national surveillance for human rabies cases and access to human rabies vaccine is lacking in many parts of the country. However, control has improved over the past 5 years as a result of the efforts of Haiti’s health and agriculture sectors with assistance from multiple international organizations. Haiti is well situated to eliminate canine-mediated human rabies deaths in the near future and should serve as a great example to many developing countries struggling with similar barriers and limitations.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0647
2017-10-18
2017-11-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/97/4_Suppl/tpmd160647.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0647&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Fooks AR, Banyard AC, Horton DL, Johnson N, McElhinney LM, Jackson AC, , 2014. Current status of rabies and prospects for elimination. Lancet 384: 13891399.[Crossref]
  2. Hampson K, ., 2015. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003709.[Crossref]
  3. World Health Organization, 2013. WHO expert consultation on rabies. Second report. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 1139 [982].
  4. Lembo T, Partners for Rabies Prevention; , 2012. The blueprint for rabies prevention and control: a novel operational toolkit for rabies elimination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1388.[Crossref]
  5. Fitzpatrick MC, Hampson K, Cleaveland S, Mzimbiri I, Lankester F, Lembo T, Meyers LA, Paltiel AD, Galvani AP, , 2014. Cost-effectiveness of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies in rural Tanzania. Ann Intern Med 160: 91100.[Crossref]
  6. Adamson PB, , 1977. The spread of rabies into Europe and the probable origin of this disease in antiquity. J R Asiat Soc GB Irel 2: 140144.[Crossref]
  7. Everard CO, Everard JD, , 1992. Mongoose rabies in the Caribbean. Ann N Y Acad Sci 653: 356366.[Crossref]
  8. Wallace RM, ., 2015. Establishment of a canine rabies burden in Haiti through the implementation of a novel surveillance program. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0004245.[Crossref]
  9. Vigilato MA, Clavijo A, Knobl T, Silva HM, Cosivi O, Schneider MC, Leanes LF, Belotto AJ, Espinal MA, , 2013. Progress towards eliminating canine rabies: policies and perspectives from Latin America and the Caribbean. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368: 20120143.[Crossref]
  10. Vigilato MA, Cosivi O, Knöbl T, Clavijo A, Silva HM, , 2013. Rabies update for Latin America and the Caribbean. Emerg Infect Dis 19: 678679.[Crossref]
  11. Millien MF, Pierre-Louis JB, Wallace R, Caldas E, Rwangabgoba JM, Poncelet JL, Cosivi O, Del Rio Vilas VJ, , 2015. Control of dog mediated human rabies in Haiti: no time to spare. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003806.[Crossref]
  12. Malerczyk C, Detora L, Gniel D, , 2011. Imported human rabies cases in europe, the United States, and Japan, 1990 to 2010. J Travel Med 18: 402407.[Crossref]
  13. Centers for Disease and Prevention, 2012. Imported human rabies: New Jersey, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60: 17341736.
  14. Centers for Disease and Prevention, 2005. Human rabies: Florida, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 54: 767768.
  15. Domercant JW, Guillaume FD, Marston BJ, Lowrance DW, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; , 2015. Update on progress in selected public health programs after the 2010 earthquake and cholera epidemic–Haiti, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 64: 137140.
  16. Dowell SF, Tappero JW, Frieden TR, , 2011. Public health in Haiti–challenges and progress. N Engl J Med 364: 300301.[Crossref]
  17. Thiermann AB, , 2015. International standards: the World Organization for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Rev Sci Tech 34: 277281.[Crossref]
  18. Lembo T, Hampson K, Kaare MT, Ernest E, Knobel D, Kazwala RR, Haydon DT, Cleaveland S, , 2010. The feasibility of canine rabies elimination in Africa: dispelling doubts with data. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e626.[Crossref]
  19. Lapiz SM, Miranda ME, Garcia RG, Daguro LI, Paman MD, Madrinan FP, Rances PA, Briggs DJ, , 2012. Implementation of an intersectoral program to eliminate human and canine rabies: the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1891.[Crossref]
  20. Monroe BP, Yager P, Blanton J, Birhane MG, Wadhwa A, Orciari L, Petersen B, Wallace R, , 2016. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2014. J Am Vet Med Assoc 248: 777788.[Crossref]
  21. Scott TP, ., 2015. The Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON): a unified approach to eliminating canine rabies in Africa. Antiviral Res 124: 93100.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0647
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0647
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 07 Aug 2016
  • Accepted : 05 Apr 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error