Volume 96, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Before 1999, leishmaniasis was considered an imported disease in Thailand. Since then, autochthonous leishmaniasis was reported in both immmunocompetent and immmunocompromised patients especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A new species was identified and named as consisting of two lineages, that is, lineages TR and PG. Analysis of isoenzymes has clarified the more commonly detected lineage PG as (MON-229), a species originally reported from the Martinique Island, whereas the lineage TR has been identified as the true novel species, (MON-324). Both cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been found among Thai patients. Disseminated CL and VL could be presented in some reported patients who had HIV/AIDS coinfection. So far, only sporadic cases have been reported; thus, the true prevalence of leishmaniasis should be determined in Thailand among the high-risk populations such as people with HIV/AIDS. A recent survey among animals identified DNA in black rats () suggesting a potential animal reservoir. In addition, DNA was identified in and , the predominant sandfly species in the affected areas. However, further studies are needed to prove that these sandflies could serve as the vector of leishmaniasis in Thailand.


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  • Received : 24 Jul 2016
  • Accepted : 12 Dec 2016

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