1921
Volume 95, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

Since the mid-2000s, the immunochromatographic card test (ICT), a point-of-care test for detecting circulating filarial antigens (CFAs), has been the backbone for mapping and monitoring lymphatic filariasis (LF) worldwide. Recently, there have been instances in which CFA positivity has been associated with microfilaremia. Here, we examined the association, at both the community and individual levels, between and CFA using additional diagnostic tools (quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], Og4C3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and IgG4 antibodies to Wb123 assays) to demonstrate the relationship between microfilaremia and ICT positivity. In May 2013, peripheral blood was collected during the day from 1,812 individuals living in southern Cameroon. ICT tests were done on the spot, and positive individuals were resampled at night. Results of qPCR and Wb123 assays concurred proving the absence of infection. Og4C3 assays indicate a quantitative relationship between the level of microfilaremia and that of CFA. This was confirmed by epidemiological analyses, which reveal a strong association between microfilaremia and ICT positivity, with 50% of ICT reacting to when its microfilarial density exceeds 30,000 microfilariae/mL. At the community level, the proportion of positive ICT would exceed 2% when the prevalence of microfilaremia in the total population is above 20%. This has significant implications in terms of mapping and control of LF caused by in -endemic areas. Cross-reactivity of ICT with has to be considered in the context of both individual and community diagnostics.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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2016-12-07
2017-09-21
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Supplementary Data

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  • Received : 03 Jul 2016
  • Accepted : 25 Aug 2016

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