1921
Volume 96, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

Water sources classified as “improved” may not necessarily provide safe drinking water for householders. We analyzed data from Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 to explore the extent of fecal contamination of household drinking water. Fecal contamination was detected in 81.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.9–84.2) household drinking water from improved sources and 89.6% (95% CI: 80.4–94.7) in water samples from unimproved sources. In adjusted analysis, there was no difference in odds of fecal contamination of household drinking water between improved and unimproved sources. We observed significantly lower odds of fecal contamination of drinking water in households in higher wealth quintiles, where soap and water were available for handwashing and in households employing water treatment. The extent of contamination of drinking water as observed in this study highlights the huge amount of effort required to ensure the provision of safely managed water in Nepal by 2030 as aimed in sustainable development goals.

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2017-02-08
2018-02-25
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References

  1. Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission, 2013. Nepal Millennium Development Goals Progress Report 2013. Available at: http://www.np.undp.org/content/dam/nepal/docs/reports/millennium%20development%20goals/UNDP_NP_MDG_Report_2013.pdf. Accessed August 2, 2016.
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  7. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) and UNICEF Bangladesh, 2014. Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012–2013. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/MICS_Final_21062015_Low.pdf. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  8. Ghana Statistical Service, 2014. Ghana Living Standard Survey Round 6 (GLSS 6): Main Report. Available at: http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/glss6/GLSS6_Main%20Report.pdf. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  9. Institut National de la Statistique (INS) et UNICEF, 2015. Enquête par grappes à indicateurs multiples: MICS5 CONGO 2014–2015, Rapport de résultats clés. Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo: INS et UNICEF.
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  11. Bain R, Cronk R, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Bartram J, , 2014. Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 11: e1001644.[Crossref]
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  • Received : 22 Jun 2016
  • Accepted : 23 Sep 2016

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