Volume 97, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



is a halophilic gram-negative bacillus isolated in seawater, fish, and shellfish. Infection by is the most severe food-borne infection reported in the United States of America. Here, we aimed to examine the clinical usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using tissue specimens other than blood samples as a diagnostic tool for infection. A retrospective study was conducted with patients who underwent real-time PCR of in both blood and skin tissues, including serum, bullae, swab, and operation room specimens, between 2006 and 2009. The median DNA load of 14 patients in real-time PCR analysis of serum at the time of admission was 638.5 copies/mL blood, which was within the interquartile range (IQR: 37–3,225). In contrast, the median value by real-time PCR using the first tissue specimen at the time of admission was 16,650 copies/mL tissue fluid (IQR: 4,419–832,500). This difference was statistically significant ( = 0.022). DNA copy numbers in tissues were less affected by short-term antibiotic administration than that in blood samples, and antibiotic administration increased the DNA copy number in some patients. We found, for the first time, that DNA copy numbers in tissues of patients infected by were higher than those in blood samples. Additionally, skin lesions were more useful than blood samples as specimens for PCR analysis in patients administered antibiotics for infection before admission.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Haq SM, Dayal HH, 2005. Chronic liver disease and consumption of raw oysters: a potentially lethal combination: a review of Vibrio vulnificus septicemia. Am J Gastroenterol 100: 11951199.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV, 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5: 607625.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Klontz KC, Lieb S, Schreiber M, Janowski HT, Baldy LM, Gunn RA, 1988. Syndromes of Vibrio vulnificus infections. Clinical and epidemiologic features in Florida cases, 1981–1987. Ann Intern Med 109: 318323.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Kim DM, Lym Y, Jang SJ, Han H, Kim YG, Chung CH, Hong SP, 2005. In vitro efficacy of the combination of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime against Vibrio vulnificus . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 34893491.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Takahashi H, Hara-Kudo Y, Miyasaka J, Kumagai S, Konuma H, 2005. Development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction targeted to the toxR for detection of Vibrio vulnificus . J Microbiol Methods 61: 7785.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Kim HS, Kim DM, Neupane GP, Lee YM, Yang NW, Jang SJ, Jung SI, Park KH, Park HR, Lee CS, Lee SH, 2008. Comparison of conventional, nested, and real-time PCR assays for rapid and accurate detection of Vibrio vulnificus . J Clin Microbiol 46: 29922998.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Kim DM, Jung SI, Jang HC, Lee CS, Lee SH, Yun NR, Neupane GP, Park KH, 2011. Vibrio vulnificus DNA load and mortality. J Clin Microbiol 49: 413415.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ho YC, Chang SC, Lin SR, Wang WK, 2009. High levels of mecA DNA detected by a quantitative real-time PCR assay are associated with mortality in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. J Clin Microbiol 47: 14431451.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Yun NR, Kim DM, Lee J, Han MA, 2015. pH level as a marker for predicting death among patients with Vibrio vulnificus infection, South Korea, 2000–2011. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 259264.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 22 Jun 2016
  • Accepted : 13 Feb 2017
  • Published online : 08 May 2017
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error