Volume 95, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease widespread in the Mediterranean basin, including Cyprus. During the last decades no cases were notified from northern Cyprus, but herein three cases of VL (female: 2, male: 1, median age: 24.6 months) diagnosed during their hospital admission between January 2011 and December 2012 are reported. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings; 1 ≥ 1/64 titer positivity of immunofluorescence antibodies, amastigotes in Giemsa-stained slides of bone marrow, as well as molecular identification confirmed that in all three the infecting pathogen was . Fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly were the typical clinical findings. First-line treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome; intravenous, 3 mg/kg) on days 1–5, followed by the same on days 10 and 21 yielded a successful outcome with no relapse in all cases. These confirmed VL cases found within 2 years demonstrate the presence of VL on the island.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Ok UZ, Balcioglu IC, Taylan Ozkan A, Ozensoy S, Ozbel Y, , 2002. Leishmaniasis in Turkey. Acta Trop 84: 4348.[Crossref]
  2. Antoniou M, Haralambous C, Mazeris A, Pratlong M, Dedet JP, Soteriadou K, , 2009. Leishmania donovani leishmaniasis in Cyprus. Lancet Infect Dis 9: 7677.[Crossref]
  3. Mazeris A, Soteriadou K, Dedet JP, Haralambous C, Tsatsaris A, Moschandreas J, Messaritakis I, Christodoulou V, Papadopoulos B, Ivovic V, Pratlong F, Loucaides F, Antoniou M, , 2010. Leishmaniases and the Cyprus paradox. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 441448.[Crossref]
  4. Sakru N, Ozensoy Toz S, Korkmaz M, Kavakli T, Alkan MZ, Ozbel Y, , 2006. The infection risk of visceral leishmaniasis among household members of active patients. Parasitol Int 55: 131133.[Crossref]
  5. di Martino L, Davidson RN, Giacchino R, Scotti S, Raimondi F, Castagnola E, Tasso L, Cascio A, Gradoni L, Gramiccia M, Pettoello-Mantovani M, Bryceson AD, , 1997. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in children with liposomal amphotericin. J Pediatr 131: 271277.[Crossref]
  6. Kafetzis DA, Maltezou HC, , 2002. Visceral leishmaniasis in paediatrics. Curr Opin Infect Dis 15: 289294.[Crossref]
  7. Ay Y, Yildiz B, Unver H, Karapinar DY, Vardar F, , 2012. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with H1N1 virus infection and visceral leishmaniasis in a 4.5-month-old infant. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 45: 407409.[Crossref]
  8. Demir S, Gocmen B, Ozbel Y, , 2010. Faunistic study of sand flies in northern Cyprus. North-West J Zool 6: 149161.
  9. Deplazes P, Grimm F, Papaprodromou M, Cavaliero T, Gramiccia M, Christofi G, Christofi N, Economides P, Eckert J, , 1998. Canine leishmaniosis in Cyprus due to Leishmania infantum MON 1. Acta Trop 71: 169178.[Crossref]
  10. Toz SO, Ertabaklar H, Gocmen B, Demir S, Karakus M, Arserim SK, Balcıoğlu IC, Canakçı T, Ozbel Y, , 2013. An epidemiological study on canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and sand flies in northern Cyprus [in Turkish]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 37: 107112.[Crossref]
  11. Ertabaklar H, Ozensoy Toz S, Taylan Ozkan A, Rastgeldi S, Balcioglu C, , 2005. Serological and entomological survey in a zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis focus of north central Anatolia, Turkey: Corum Province. Acta Trop 93: 239245.[Crossref]
  12. Ozkan AT, Yalcinkaya T, Kilic S, Babur C, Schallig HD, , 2008. Investigation of Leishmania infantum seropositivity in HIV/AIDS patients [in Turkish]. Mikrobiyol Bul 42: 113117.
  13. Toz SO, Nasereddin A, Ozbel Y, Ertabaklar H, Culha G, Sevil N, Sevil N, Ziya Alkan M, Jaffe CL, , 2009. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: molecular characterization of Leishmania from human and canine clinical samples. Trop Med Int Health 14: 14011406.[Crossref]
  14. Serin MS, Daglioglu K, Bagirova M, Allahverdiyev A, Uzun S, Vural Z, Kayar B, Tezcan S, Yetkin M, Aslan G, Emekdas G, Koksal F, , 2005. Rapid diagnosis and genotyping of Leishmania isolates from cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis by microcapillary cultivation and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of miniexon region. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 53: 209214.[Crossref]
  15. Ntais P, Sifaki-Postala D, Christodoulou V, Messaritakis I, Pratlong F, Poupalos G, Antoniou M, , 2013. Leishmaniases in Greece. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 906915.[Crossref]
  16. Toz SO, Culha G, Yildiz Zeyrek F, Erbataklar H, Alkan MZ, Vardarli AT, Gunduz C, Ozbel Y, , 2013. A real-time ITS1-PCR based method in the diagnosis and species identification of Leishmania parasite from human and dog clinical samples in Turkey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: 18.[Crossref]
  17. Oztoprak N, Aydemir H, Piskin N, Seremet Keskin A, Arasli M, Gokmen A, Celebi G, Kulekci Ugur A, Taylan Ozkan A, , 2010. An adult case of visceral leishmaniasis in a province of Black-Sea region, Turkey [in Turkish]. Mikrobiyol Bul 44: 671677.
  18. World Health Organization, 2016. Leishmaniasis Fact Sheet. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs375/en/. Accessed May 7, 2016.
  19. Arik Yilmaz E, Tanir G, Tuygun N, Taylan Ozkan A, , 2009. Visceral leishmaniasis in 13 pediatric patients in Turkey: treatment experience [in Turkish]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 33: 259262.
  20. Chappuis F, Sundar S, Hailu A, Ghalib H, Rijal S, Peeling RW, Alvar J, Boelaert M, , 2007. Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control? Nat Rev Microbiol 5: 873882.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 22 Jun 2016
  • Accepted : 28 Aug 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error