Volume 95, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease widespread in the Mediterranean basin, including Cyprus. During the last decades no cases were notified from northern Cyprus, but herein three cases of VL (female: 2, male: 1, median age: 24.6 months) diagnosed during their hospital admission between January 2011 and December 2012 are reported. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings; 1 ≥ 1/64 titer positivity of immunofluorescence antibodies, amastigotes in Giemsa-stained slides of bone marrow, as well as molecular identification confirmed that in all three the infecting pathogen was . Fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly were the typical clinical findings. First-line treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome; intravenous, 3 mg/kg) on days 1–5, followed by the same on days 10 and 21 yielded a successful outcome with no relapse in all cases. These confirmed VL cases found within 2 years demonstrate the presence of VL on the island.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Ok UZ, Balcioglu IC, Taylan Ozkan A, Ozensoy S, Ozbel Y, , 2002. Leishmaniasis in Turkey. Acta Trop 84: 4348.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Antoniou M, Haralambous C, Mazeris A, Pratlong M, Dedet JP, Soteriadou K, , 2009. Leishmania donovani leishmaniasis in Cyprus. Lancet Infect Dis 9: 7677.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Mazeris A, Soteriadou K, Dedet JP, Haralambous C, Tsatsaris A, Moschandreas J, Messaritakis I, Christodoulou V, Papadopoulos B, Ivovic V, Pratlong F, Loucaides F, Antoniou M, , 2010. Leishmaniases and the Cyprus paradox. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 441448.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Sakru N, Ozensoy Toz S, Korkmaz M, Kavakli T, Alkan MZ, Ozbel Y, , 2006. The infection risk of visceral leishmaniasis among household members of active patients. Parasitol Int 55: 131133.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. di Martino L, Davidson RN, Giacchino R, Scotti S, Raimondi F, Castagnola E, Tasso L, Cascio A, Gradoni L, Gramiccia M, Pettoello-Mantovani M, Bryceson AD, , 1997. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in children with liposomal amphotericin. J Pediatr 131: 271277.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Kafetzis DA, Maltezou HC, , 2002. Visceral leishmaniasis in paediatrics. Curr Opin Infect Dis 15: 289294.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Ay Y, Yildiz B, Unver H, Karapinar DY, Vardar F, , 2012. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with H1N1 virus infection and visceral leishmaniasis in a 4.5-month-old infant. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 45: 407409.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Demir S, Gocmen B, Ozbel Y, , 2010. Faunistic study of sand flies in northern Cyprus. North-West J Zool 6: 149161. [Google Scholar]
  9. Deplazes P, Grimm F, Papaprodromou M, Cavaliero T, Gramiccia M, Christofi G, Christofi N, Economides P, Eckert J, , 1998. Canine leishmaniosis in Cyprus due to Leishmania infantum MON 1. Acta Trop 71: 169178.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Toz SO, Ertabaklar H, Gocmen B, Demir S, Karakus M, Arserim SK, Balcıoğlu IC, Canakçı T, Ozbel Y, , 2013. An epidemiological study on canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and sand flies in northern Cyprus [in Turkish]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 37: 107112.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Ertabaklar H, Ozensoy Toz S, Taylan Ozkan A, Rastgeldi S, Balcioglu C, , 2005. Serological and entomological survey in a zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis focus of north central Anatolia, Turkey: Corum Province. Acta Trop 93: 239245.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Ozkan AT, Yalcinkaya T, Kilic S, Babur C, Schallig HD, , 2008. Investigation of Leishmania infantum seropositivity in HIV/AIDS patients [in Turkish]. Mikrobiyol Bul 42: 113117. [Google Scholar]
  13. Toz SO, Nasereddin A, Ozbel Y, Ertabaklar H, Culha G, Sevil N, Sevil N, Ziya Alkan M, Jaffe CL, , 2009. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: molecular characterization of Leishmania from human and canine clinical samples. Trop Med Int Health 14: 14011406.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Serin MS, Daglioglu K, Bagirova M, Allahverdiyev A, Uzun S, Vural Z, Kayar B, Tezcan S, Yetkin M, Aslan G, Emekdas G, Koksal F, , 2005. Rapid diagnosis and genotyping of Leishmania isolates from cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis by microcapillary cultivation and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of miniexon region. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 53: 209214.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Ntais P, Sifaki-Postala D, Christodoulou V, Messaritakis I, Pratlong F, Poupalos G, Antoniou M, , 2013. Leishmaniases in Greece. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 906915.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Toz SO, Culha G, Yildiz Zeyrek F, Erbataklar H, Alkan MZ, Vardarli AT, Gunduz C, Ozbel Y, , 2013. A real-time ITS1-PCR based method in the diagnosis and species identification of Leishmania parasite from human and dog clinical samples in Turkey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: 18.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Oztoprak N, Aydemir H, Piskin N, Seremet Keskin A, Arasli M, Gokmen A, Celebi G, Kulekci Ugur A, Taylan Ozkan A, , 2010. An adult case of visceral leishmaniasis in a province of Black-Sea region, Turkey [in Turkish]. Mikrobiyol Bul 44: 671677. [Google Scholar]
  18. World Health Organization, 2016. Leishmaniasis Fact Sheet. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs375/en/. Accessed May 7, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  19. Arik Yilmaz E, Tanir G, Tuygun N, Taylan Ozkan A, , 2009. Visceral leishmaniasis in 13 pediatric patients in Turkey: treatment experience [in Turkish]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 33: 259262. [Google Scholar]
  20. Chappuis F, Sundar S, Hailu A, Ghalib H, Rijal S, Peeling RW, Alvar J, Boelaert M, , 2007. Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control? Nat Rev Microbiol 5: 873882.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 22 Jun 2016
  • Accepted : 28 Aug 2016
  • Published online : 07 Dec 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error