Volume 96, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Echinococcosis is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic in Qinghai Province. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis among schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to improve early diagnosis and treatment of patients and to provide information for echinococcosis prevention and control. A total of 11,260 schoolchildren from five counties (Maqin, Gander, Dari, Jiuzhi, and Banma) in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, were screened for echinococcosis. Screening involved ultrasound imaging combined with serologic examination as an auxiliary diagnostic test. The prevalence of echinococcosis in the schoolchildren was 2.1% (235/11,260), with a rate of 0.8% for cystic echinococcosis (CE; 89/11,260) and 1.3% for alveolar echinococcosis (AE; 146/11,260). Additionally, one child had a mixed infection. The prevalence ranged between 1.1% and 4.1% among the five investigated counties, and was highest in Dari County (4.1%). The prevalence of echinococcosis was higher in girls than in boys and gradually increased with age. In addition, children with CE mainly had type 1 (CE1) and type 3 (CE3) lesions, and children with AE mainly had small-diameter calcified lesions, suggesting that they were in the early asymptomatic stage of echinococcosis. In conclusion, children of Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture appear to exhibit the highest recorded prevalence of CE and AE globally. Ultrasound is useful for screening populations in regions where both CE and AE are endemic.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Craig PS, Rogan MT, Campos-Ponce M, , 2003. Echinococcosis: disease, detection and transmission. Parasitology 127: S5S20. [Google Scholar]
  2. Mora P, Schantz PM, , 2009. Echinococcosis: a review. Int J Infect Dis 13: 125133.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Pawlowski Z, Eckert J, Vuitton DA, Ammann RW, Kern P, Craig PS, Eckert J, Gemmell MA, Meslin FX, Pawlowski Z, , 2001. Echinococcosis in humans: clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment. , eds. WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis in Humans and Animals. Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties, 100145. [Google Scholar]
  4. Craig PS, Echinococcosis Working Group in China; , 2006. Epidemiology of human alveolar echinococcosis in China. Parasitol Int 55 (Suppl): S221S225.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Vuitton DA, Zhou H, Bresson-Hadni S, Wang Q, Piarroux M, Raoul F, Giraudoux P, , 2003. Epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis with particular reference to China and Europe. Parasitology 127: S87S107.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Coordinating Office of the National Survey on the Important Human Parasitic Diseases, 2005. A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 23: 332340. [Google Scholar]
  7. Wang H, Zhang JX, Schantz PM, Ito A, Craig PS, Wu XH, Han XM, , 2006. Epidemiologic survey and analysis on echinococcosis in humans and animals from 1995 to 2005 in Qinghai province [in Chinese]. Chin J Zoonoses 22: 11291134. [Google Scholar]
  8. Yu SH, Wang H, Wu XH, Ma X, Liu PY, Liu YF, Zhao YM, Morishima Y, Kawanaka M, , 2008. Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis: an epidemiological survey in a Tibetan population in southeast Qinghai, China. Jpn J Infect Dis 61: 242246. [Google Scholar]
  9. Wang H, , 2008. Ultrasonographic survey on human echinococcosis in Qinghai province, China. Clin Parasitol 19: 143146. [Google Scholar]
  10. Rong DS, Ji YZ, Bao TX, Zhong TD, , 1993. Epidemiological survey of echinococcosis in dairy and ranch in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province [in Chinese]. Endemic Dis Bull 8: 87. [Google Scholar]
  11. Han XM, Wang H, Cai HX, Ma X, Liu YF, Wei BH, Ito A, Craig PS, , 2009. Epidemiological survey on echinococcosis in Darlag County of Qinghai Province [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 27: 2226. [Google Scholar]
  12. Han XM, Wang H, Qiu JM, Ma X, Cai HX, Liu PY, Ding QJ, Dai N, Ito A, Craig PS, , 2006. An epidemiological survey on echinococcosis in Banma County of Qinghai Province [in Chinese]. Chin J Zoonoses 22: 189190. [Google Scholar]
  13. Kammerer WS, Schantz PM, , 1993. Echinococccal disease. Infect Dis Clin North Am 7: 605618. [Google Scholar]
  14. Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, 2012. Data on Net Enrolment Ratio of Primary School by Province. Available at: http://www.moe.gov.cn/s78/A03/moe_560/s6200/201201/t20120117_129533.html/, Accessed January 17, 2012. [Google Scholar]
  15. Wu W, Wen H, Wang H, Yang W, Tong S, Jiang L, , 2006. Health Standard of the People's Republic of China, Diagnostic Criteria for Echinococcosis. Beijing: People's Republic of China: Ministry of Health, 56. [Google Scholar]
  16. Craig P, Budke CM, Schantz PM, Li T, Qui J, Yang Y, Zeyhle E, Rogan MT, Ito A, , 2007. Human echinococcosis: a neglected disease? Trop Med Int Health 35: 283292.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Menghebat L, Jiang L, Chai J, Andersen FL, Chai JJ, Liu FJ, , 1993. A retrospective survey for surgical cases of cystic echinococcosis in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, PRC (1951–1990). , eds. Compendium on Cystic Echinococcosis with Special Reference to the Xinjiang Ugur Autonomous Region, the People's Republic of China. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Print Services, 135145. [Google Scholar]
  18. Qiu JM, Liu FJ, Schantz PM, Ito A, Delker C, He JG, Zhang Y, Chen XW, , 2000. Epidemiological study on human hydatidosis in Tibetan region of western Sichuan [in Chinese]. Chin J Zoonoses 16: 7780. [Google Scholar]
  19. Yang YR, Craig PS, Vitton DA, Williams GM, Sun T, Liu TX, Boufana B, Giraudoux P, Teng J, Li Y, Huang L, Zhang W, Jones MK, McManus DP, , 2008. Serological prevalence of echinococcosis and risk factors for infection among children in rural communities of southern Ningxia, China. Trop Med Int Health 13: 10861094.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Ok UZ, Ozkol M, Kilimcioğlu AA, Dinç G, Bayindir P, Ostan I, Pabuşçu Y, Ozcan C, Korkmaz M, Coşkun S, Yüksel H, Girginkardeşler N, , 2007. A province-based study using sampling method to investigate the prevalence cystic echinococcosis of among primary schoolchildren in Manisa, Turkey. Acta Trop 103: 116122.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Tiaoying L, Jiamin Q, Wen Y, Craig PS, Xingwang C, Ning X, Ito A, Giraudoux P, Wulamu M, Wen Y, Schantz PM, , 2005. Echinococcosis in Tibetan populations, western Sichuan Province, China. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 18661873.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Li T, Chen X, Zhen R, Qiu J, Qiu D, Xiao N, Ito A, Wang H, Giraudoux P, Sako Y, Nakao M, Craig PS, , 2010. Widespread co-endemicity of human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, northwest Sichuan/southeast Qinghai, China. Acta Trop 113: 248256.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Ma X, Wang H, Han XM, Zhang JX, Liu YF, Zhao YM, Wang YS, Ma JY, Liu HQ, Gang J, , 2015. Survey on echinococcosis in Maqing County of Qinghai Province [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 33: 269272. [Google Scholar]
  24. Schantz PM, Wang H, Qiu J, Liu FJ, Saito E, Emshoff A, Ito A, Roberts JM, Delker C, , 2003. Echinococcosis on the Tibetan plateau: prevalence and risk factors for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in Tibetan populations in Qinghai Province, China. Parasitology 127: S109S120.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Nakao M, Li T, Han X, Ma X, Xiao N, Qiu J, Wang H, Yanagida T, Mamuti W, Wen H, Moro PL, Giraudoux P, Craig PS, Ito A, , 2010. Genetic polymorphisms of Echinococcus tapeworms in China as determined by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Int J Parasitol 40: 379385.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Ma SM, Maillard S, Zhao HL, Wang H, Bart JM, Piarroux R, , 2009. The polymorphic analysis of mitochondrial DNA of Echinococcus granulosus in south plateau of Qinghai province [in Chinese]. Chin J Zoonoses 25: 10951098. [Google Scholar]
  27. Craig PS, Giraudoux P, Shi DZ, Bartholomot B, Barnish G, Delattre P, Quere JP, Harraga S, Bao G, Wang Y, Lu F, Ito A, Vuitton DA, , 2000. An epidemiological and ecological study of human alveolar echinococcosis transmission in south Gansu, China. Acta Trop 77: 167177.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Bartholomot G, Vuitton DA, Harraga S, Shi DZ, Giraudoux P, Barnish G, Wang YH, MacPherson CN, Craig PS, , 2002. Combined ultrasound and serologic screening for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in central China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 2329. [Google Scholar]
  29. Zeng H, Wang J, Xie W, Liu W, Wen H, , 2012. Assessment of early hepatic Echinococcus multilocularis infection in rats with real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Ultrasound Med Biol 38: 19821988.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Sasaki F, Ohkawa Y, Sato N, Uchino J, Hata Y, , 1997. Imaging diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in young patients. Pediatr Radiol 27: 6366.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Yoshida T, Kamiyama T, Okada T, Nakanishi K, Yokoo H, Kamachi H, Matsushita M, Sato N, Sasaki F, Todo S, , 2010. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver in children. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 17: 152157.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 Jun 2016
  • Accepted : 22 Oct 2016
  • Published online : 09 Jan 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error