Volume 95, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Reactivation of latent imported infections has been periodically reported in migrant patients undergoing immunosuppression. We performed a prospective study at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Migrant patients over 16 years with the diagnosis of any oncohematologic disease were included. Patients were tested for soil-transmitted helminths, hepatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus, , human T-cell lymphotropic virus, latent tuberculosis infection, spp., infection, spp., infection, spp., and dimorphic fungi. Patients were treated and followed for 1 year to assess reactivation. A total of 42 patients were included in this study. Median age was 39 (31–51) years. Twenty-five (59.5%) patients were women. More than half of the patients were of Latin American origin. Sixteen patients (38.1%) underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Of the patients, 71.4% had at least one imported infection. Patients with at least one positive result in the screening did not show any statistically significant association with the studied variables. We did not find any reactivation of the treated latent infections. After specific treatment we did not observe any reactivation. Screening of latent imported infections previous to an immunosuppressive treatment is easy to perform and it may be lifesaving.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. de Górgolas M, Casado V, Renedo G, Alen JF, Fernández Guerrero ML, , 2009. Nodular lung schistosomiais lesions after chemotherapy for dysgerminoma. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 424427.
  2. Aydin H, Doppl W, Battmann A, Bohle RM, Klör HU, , 1994. Opportunistic Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy—report of a case and review of the literature. Acta Oncol 33: 7880.[Crossref]
  3. Wirk B, Wingard JR, , 2009. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis Off J Transplant Soc 11: 143148.[Crossref]
  4. Eurostat, 2015. Migration and Migrant Population Statistics: Statistics Explained. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Migration_and_migrant_population_statistics. Accessed September 2, 2015.
  5. Sección Prensa/Cifras Oficiales de Población. Explotación Estadística del Padrón. Available at: http://www.ine.es/prensa/padron_prensa.htm. Accessed August 27, 2015.
  6. McDermott S, Desmeules M, Lewis R, Gold J, Payne J, Lafrance B, Vissandjée B, Kliewer E, Mao Y, , 2010. Cancer incidence among Canadian immigrants, 1980–1998: results from a national cohort study. J Immigr Minor Health 13: 1526.[Crossref]
  7. Vázquez M-L, Terraza-Núñez R, Vargas I, Rodríguez D, Lizana T, , 2011. Health policies for migrant populations in three European countries: England; Italy and Spain. Health Policy Amst Neth 101: 7078.[Crossref]
  8. Kindwall-Keller T, Isola LM, , 2009. The evolution of hematopoietic SCT in myelodysplastic syndrome. Bone Marrow Transplant 43: 597609.[Crossref]
  9. Tomblyn M, Chiller T, Einsele H, Gress R, Sepkowitz K, Storek J, Wingard JR, Young JA, Boeckh MJ, Center for International Blood and Marrow Research, National Marrow Donor Program, European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group, American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Canadian Blood and Marrow Transplant Group, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, , 2009. Guidelines for preventing infectious complications among hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: a global perspective. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 15: 11431238.[Crossref]
  10. Rougemont M, Van Saanen M, Sahli R, Hinrikson HP, Bille J, Jaton K, , 2004. Detection of four Plasmodium species in blood from humans by 18S rRNA gene subunit-based and species-specific real-time PCR assays. J Clin Microbiol 42: 56365643.[Crossref]
  11. Piron M, Fisa R, Casamitjana N, López-Chejade P, Puig L, Vergés M, Gascón J, Gómez i Prat J, Portús M, Sauleda S, , 2007. Development of a real-time PCR assay for Trypanosoma cruzi detection in blood samples. Acta Trop 103: 195200.[Crossref]
  12. Protocols Clinicos SEIMC. seimc-procedimientoclinicox.pdf. Available at: http://www.seimc.org/contenidos/documentoscientificos/procedimientosclinicos/seimc-procedimientoclinicox.pdf. Accessed September 4, 2015.
  13. Khalil HM, Makled MK, Azab ME, Abdalla HM, el Sherif EA, Nassef NS, , 1991. Opportunistic parasitic infections in immunocompromised hosts. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 21: 657668.
  14. Graeff-Teixeira C, Leite CS, Sperhacke CL, Fassina K, Petry SM, Mucenic T, Pandolfi C, Barcellos S, Job F, , 1997. Prospective study of strongyloidosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 30: 355357.[Crossref]
  15. Guarner J, Matilde-Nava T, Villaseñor-Flores R, Sanchez-Mejorada G, , 1997. Frequency of intestinal parasites in adult cancer patients in Mexico. Arch Med Res 28: 219222.
  16. Schaffel R, Nucci M, Portugal R, Castro MB, Ferreira SB, Almeida L, Spector N, Pulcheri W, , 2000. Thiabendazole for the treatment of strongyloidiasis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am 31: 821822.[Crossref]
  17. Bocanegra C, Salvador F, Sulleiro E, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Pahissa A, Molina I, , 2014. Screening for imported diseases in an immigrant population: experience from a teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 12771281.[Crossref]
  18. Salvador F, Sulleiro E, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Saugar JM, Rodríguez E, Pahissa A, Molina I, , 2014. Usefulness of Strongyloides stercoralis serology in the management of patients with eosinophilia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 830834.[Crossref]
  19. Salvador F, Molina I, Sulleiro E, Burgos J, Curran A, Van den Eynde E, Villar del Saz S, Navarro J, Crespo M, Ocaña I, Ribera E, Falcó V, Pahissa A, , 2013. Tropical diseases screening in immigrant patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Spain. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 11961202.[Crossref]
  20. Schaffel R, Portugal R, Maiolino A, Nucci M, , 2004. Strongyloidiasis pre and post autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 33: 117.[Crossref]
  21. Schaffel R, Nucci M, Carvalho E, Braga M, Almeida L, Portugal R, Pulcheri W, , 2001. The value of an immunoenzymatic test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in patients immunosuppressed by hematologic malignancies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 346350.
  22. Igra-Siegman Y, Kapila R, Sen P, Kaminski ZC, Louria DB, , 1981. Syndrome of hyperinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis . Rev Infect Dis 3: 397407.[Crossref]
  23. Portugal R, Schaffel R, Almeida L, Spector N, Nucci M, , 2002. Thiabendazole for the prophylaxis of strongyloidiasis in immunosuppressed patients with hematological diseases: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Haematologica 87: 663664.
  24. Machado ER, Carlos D, Sorgi CA, Ramos SG, Souza DI, Soares EG, Costa-Cruz JM, Ueta MT, Aronoff DM, Faccioli LH, , 2011. Dexamethasone effects in the Strongyloides venezuelensis infection in a murine model. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 957966.[Crossref]
  25. Montes M, White AC, Kontoyiannis DP, , 2004. Symptoms of intestinal schistosomiasis presenting during treatment of large B cell lymphoma. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 552553.
  26. Metze K, Lorand-Metze I, De Almeida EA, De Moraes SL, , 1991. Reactivation of Chagas' myocarditis during therapy of Hodgkin's disease. Trop Geogr Med 43: 228230.
  27. Altclas J, Sinagra A, Dictar M, Luna C, Verón MT, De Rissio AM, García MM, Salgueira C, Riarte A, , 2005. Chagas disease in bone marrow transplantation: an approach to preemptive therapy. Bone Marrow Transplant 36: 123129.[Crossref]
  28. Pérez-Molina JA, Perez AM, Norman FF, Monge-Maillo B, López-Vélez R, , 2015. Old and new challenges in Chagas disease. The Lancet Infect Dis 15: 134756.[Crossref]
  29. Fakhar M, Asgari Q, Motazedian MH, Monabati A, , 2008. Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Parasitol Res 103: 473475.[Crossref]
  30. de Medeiros BC, de Medeiros CR, Werner B, Loddo G, Pasquini R, Bleggi-Torres LF, , 2001. Disseminated toxoplasmosis after bone marrow transplantation: report of 9 cases. Transpl Infect Dis Off J Transplant Soc 3: 2428.[Crossref]
  31. Edvinsson B, Lundquist J, Ljungman P, Ringdén O, Evengård B, , 2008. A prospective study of diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection after bone marrow transplantation. APMIS 116: 345351.[Crossref]
  32. Ashbee HR, Evans EGV, Viviani MA, Dupont B, Chryssanthou E, Surmont I, Tomsikova A, Vachkov P, Enero B, Zala J, Tintelnot K, ECMM Working Group on Histoplasmosis, , 2008. Histoplasmosis in Europe: report on an epidemiological survey from the European Confederation of Medical Mycology Working Group. Med Mycol 46: 5765.[Crossref]
  33. Adderson EE, , 2004. Histoplasmosis in a pediatric oncology center. J Pediatr 144: 100106.[Crossref]
  34. Assi MA, Sandid MS, Baddour LM, Roberts GD, Walker RC, , 2007. Systemic histoplasmosis: a 15-year retrospective institutional review of 111 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 86: 162169.[Crossref]
  35. Vergidis P, Avery RK, Wheat LJ, Dotson JL, Assi MA, Antoun SA, Hamoud KA, Burdette SD, Freifeld AG, McKinsey DS, Money ME, Myint T, Andes DR, Hoey CA, Kaul DA, Dickter JK, Liebers DE, Miller RA, Muth WE, Prakash V, Steiner FT, Walker RC, Hage CA, , 2015. Histoplasmosis complicating tumor necrosis factor–α blocker therapy: a retrospective analysis of 98 cases. Clin Infect Dis 61: 409417.[Crossref]
  36. Kauffman CA, , 2008. Diagnosis of histoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients. Curr Opin Infect Dis 21: 421425.[Crossref]
  37. Glenn TJ, Blair JE, Adams RH, , 2005. Coccidioidomycosis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Med Mycol 43: 705710.[Crossref]
  38. Blair JE, Smilack JD, Caples SM, , 2005. Coccidioidomycosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Arch Intern Med 165: 113117.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplementary PDF

  • Received : 08 Jun 2016
  • Accepted : 06 Sep 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error