Volume 96, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Recent tetanus cases associated with male circumcision in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) prompted an examination of tetanus immunity by age and sex using multiplex serologic data from community surveys in three ESA countries during 2012–2013. Tetanus seroprotection was lower among children 5–14 years versus 1–4 years of age in Kenya (66% versus 90%) and Tanzania (66% versus 89%), but not in Mozambique (91% versus 88%), where children receive two booster doses in school. Among males ≥ 15 years of age, tetanus seroprotection was lower than females in Kenya (45% versus 96%), Tanzania (28% versus 94%), and Mozambique (64% versus 90%). Tetanus immunity from infant vaccination doses wanes over time, and only women of reproductive age routinely receive booster doses. To prevent immunity gaps in older children, adolescents, and adult men, a life-course vaccination strategy is needed to provide the three recommended tetanus booster doses.


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  • Received : 07 Jun 2016
  • Accepted : 21 Oct 2016
  • Published online : 08 Feb 2017

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