Volume 95, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Previous experimental studies have demonstrated that a number of mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens are vertically transmitted in their insect vectors, providing a mechanism for these arboviruses to persist during adverse climatic conditions or in the absence of a susceptible vertebrate host. In this study, designed to test whether Zika virus (ZIKV) could be vertically transmitted, female and were injected with ZIKV, and their F adult progeny were tested for ZIKV infection. Six of 69 pools, comprised of a total of 1,738 F adults, yielded ZIKV upon culture, giving a minimum filial infection rate of 1:290. In contrast, none of 803 F adults (32 pools) yielded ZIKV. The MFIR for was comparable to MFIRs reported for other flaviviruses in mosquitoes, including dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. The results suggest that vertical transmission may provide a potential mechanism for the virus to survive during adverse conditions.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Musso D, Gubler DJ, , 2016. Zika virus. Clin Microbiol Rev 29: 487524.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Peterson LP, Jamieson DJ, Powers AM, Honein MA, , 2016. Zika virus. N Engl J Med 374: 15521563.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Lazear HM, Diamond MS, , 2016. Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere. J Virol 90: 48644875.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Vasilakis N, Weaver SC, , 2008. The history and evolution of human dengue emergence. Adv Virus Res 72: 176.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Monath TP, , 2001. Yellow fever: an update. Lancet 1: 1120.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Weaver SC, Reisen WK, , 2010. Present and future arbovirus threats. Antiviral Res 85: 328345.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Tesh RB, Bolling BG, Beaty BJ, Gubler DJ, Vasilakis N, , 2016. Role of vertical transmission in arbovirus maintenance and evolution. , eds. Arboviruses: Molecular Biology, Evolution and Control. Norfolk, United Kingdom: Calister Academic Press, 191218.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Bolling BG, Weaver SC, Tesh RB, Vasilakis N, , 2015. Insect-specific virus discovery: significance for the arbovirus community. Viruses 7: 49114928.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Blitvich BJ, Firth AE, , 2015. Insect-specific flaviviruses: a systemic review of their discovery, host range, mode of transmission, superinfection exclusion potential and genomic organization. Viruses 7: 19271959.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Higgs S, Marquardt WC, , 2005. Care, maintenance, and experimental infection of mosquitoes. , ed. Biology of Disease Vectors, 2nd edition. Burlington, MA: Elsevier, 733739. [Google Scholar]
  11. Tesh RB, , 1979. A method for the isolation and identification of dengue viruses, using mosquito cell cultures. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28: 10531059. [Google Scholar]
  12. Hermance ME, Thangamani S, , 2015. Tick saliva enhances Powassan virus transmission to the host, influencing its dissemination and the course of disease. J Virol 89: 78527860.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Lanciotti RS, Kosoy OL, Laven JJ, Velez JO, Lambert AJ, Johnson AJ, Standfield SM, Duffy MR, , 2008. Genetic and serologic properties of Zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 12321239.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Beaty BJ, Tesh RB, Aitken THG, , 1980. Transovarial transmission of yellow fever virus in Stegomyia mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 125132. [Google Scholar]
  15. Dutary BE, LeDuc JW, , 1981. Transovarial transmission of yellow fever virus by a sylvatic vector, Haemagogus equinus . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 75: 128.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Rosen L, Shroyer DA, Tesh RB, Freier JE, Lien JC, , 1983. Transovarial transmission of dengue viruses by mosquitoes: Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti . Am J Trop Med Hyg 32: 11081119. [Google Scholar]
  17. Tesh RB, , 1980. Experimental studies on the transovarial transmission of Kunjin and San Angelo viruses in mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 657666. [Google Scholar]
  18. Joussett FX, , 1981. Geographic Aedes aegypti strains and dengue-2 virus: susceptibility, ability to transmit to vertebrate and transovarial transmission. Ann Virol Inst Pasteur 132: 357370.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Joshi V, Mourya DT, Sharma RC, , 2002. Persistence of dengue-3 virus through transovarial transmission passage in successive generations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 158161. [Google Scholar]
  20. Baqar S, Hayes CG, Murphy JR, Watts DM, , 1993. Vertical transmission of West Nile virus by Culex and Aedes species mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48: 757762. [Google Scholar]
  21. Rosen L, Tesh RB, Lien JC, Cross JH, , 1978. Transovarial transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by mosquitoes. Science 199: 909911.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Rosen L, Lien JC, Shroyer DA, Baker RH, Lu LC, , 1989. Experimental vertical transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by Culex tritaeniorhynchus and other mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40: 548556. [Google Scholar]
  23. Hardy JL, Rosen L, Reeves WC, Scrivani RP, Presser SB, , 1984. Experimental transovarial transmission of St. Louis encephalitis virus by Culex and Aedes mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33: 166175. [Google Scholar]
  24. Nayar JK, Rosen L, Knight JW, , 1986. Experimental vertical transmission of Saint Louis encephalitis virus by Florida mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 12961301. [Google Scholar]
  25. Hardy JL, Rosen L, Kramer LD, Presser SB, Shroyer DA, Turell MJ, , 1980. Effect of rearing temperature on transovarial transmission of St. Louis encephalitis virus in mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 963968. [Google Scholar]
  26. Freier JE, Rosen L, , 1988. Vertical transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes mediovittatus . Am J Trop Med Hyg 39: 218222. [Google Scholar]
  27. Shroyer DA, , 1990. Vertical maintenance of dengue-1 virus in sequential generations of Aedes albopictus . J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6: 312314. [Google Scholar]
  28. Fine PE, , 1975. Vectors and vertical transmission: an epidemiological perspective. Ann N Y Acad Sci 266: 173194.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Adams B, Boots M, , 2010. How important is vertical transmission in mosquitoes for the persistence of dengue? Insights from a mathematical model. Epidemics 2: 110.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Christophers SR, , 1960. Aedes aegypti (L); The Yellow Fever Mosquito. Its Life History, Bionomics and Structure. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
  31. Estrado-Franco JG, Craig GB, Jr, 1995. Biology, Disease Relationships, and Control of Aedes albopictus. Technical Paper 42. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  32. Thompson WH, Beaty BJ, , 1977. Venereal transmission of LaCrosse virus from male to female Aedes triseriatus . Am J Trop Med Hyg 27: 187196. [Google Scholar]
  33. Seecof R, , 1968. The sigma virus of Drosophila melanogaster . Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 42: 5993. [Google Scholar]
  34. Tesh RB, Shroyer DA, , 1980. The mechanism of arbovirus transovarial transmission in mosquitoes: San Angelo virus in Aedes albopictus . Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 13941404. [Google Scholar]
  35. Turell MJ, Hardy JL, Reeves WC, , 1982. Stabilized infection of California encephalitis virus in Aedes dorsalis, and its implications for viral maintenance in nature. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31: 12521259. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 06 Jun 2016
  • Accepted : 01 Aug 2016
  • Published online : 02 Nov 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error