Volume 96, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) by is associated with decreasing cure rates in Brazil. Standard treatment with pentavalent antimony (Sb) cures only 50–60% of the cases. The immunopathogenesis of CL ulcer is associated with high interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production. Pentoxifylline, a TNF inhibitor, has been successfully used in association with Sb in mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis. This randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral pentoxifylline plus Sb versus placebo plus Sb in patients with CL in Bahia, Brazil. A total of 164 patients were randomized in two groups to receive the combination or the monotherapy. Cure rate 6 months after treatment was 45% in the pentoxifylline group and 43% in the control group. There was also no difference between the groups regarding the healing time (99.7 ± 66.2 days and 98.1 ± 72.7 days, respectively). Adverse events were more common in the pentoxifylline group (37.8%), versus 23% in the placebo group. This trial shows that Sb combined therapy with pentoxifylline is not more effective than Sb monotherapy in the treatment of CL caused by .


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  • Received : 01 Jun 2016
  • Accepted : 31 Dec 2016
  • Published online : 27 Feb 2017

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