Volume 96, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Coinfection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to frequent treatment failure, relapse, and death. In this retrospective analysis from eastern India (2005–2015), our primary objective was to ascertain the protective efficacy of secondary prophylaxis with monthly amphotericin B (AmB) given in patients with HIV–VL coinfection toward reducing relapse and mortality rates. The secondary objective was to compare clinical features, laboratory findings, and treatment outcomes in HIV–VL patients in contrast to VL monoinfection. Overall, 53 cases of HIV–VL and 460 cases of VL monoinfection were identified after excluding incomplete records. Initial cure rate was 96.23% in HIV–VL (27 received liposomal AmB and 26 AmB deoxycholate). All patients with initial cure ( = 51) were given antiretroviral therapy. Secondary prophylaxis ( = 27) was provided with monthly 1 mg/kg AmB (15 liposomal, 12 deoxycholate). No relapse or death was noted within 6 months in the secondary prophylaxis group (relapse: none versus 18/24 [75%]; mortality: none versus 11/24 [45.8%]; < 0.001 for both). Secondary prophylaxis remained the sole significant predictor against death in multivariate Cox regression model (hazard ratio = 0.09 [95% confidence interval = 0.03–0.31]; < 0.001). HIV–VL patients had higher 6-month relapse rate, less relapse-free 12-month survival, and higher mortality ( < 0.001 each) than VL monoinfection. In conclusion, it appears from this study that secondary prophylaxis with monthly AmB might be effective in preventing relapse and mortality in HIV–VL.


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  • Received : 30 May 2016
  • Accepted : 19 Oct 2016
  • Published online : 08 Feb 2017

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