1921
Volume 97, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently by populations at risk. Current international monitoring estimates by the Joint Monitoring Programme for water and sanitation suggest that at least 1.1 billion people practice HWT. These estimates, however, are based on surveys that may overstate the level of consistent use and do not address microbial effectiveness. We sought to assess how HWT is practiced among households identified as HWT users according to these monitoring standards. After a baseline survey (urban: 189 households, rural: 210 households) to identify HWT users, 83 urban and 90 rural households were followed up for 6 weeks. Consistency of reported HWT practices was high in both urban (100%) and rural (93.3%) settings, as was availability of treated water (based on self-report) in all three sampling points (urban: 98.8%, rural: 76.0%). Nevertheless, only 13.7% of urban and 25.8% of rural households identified at baseline as users of adequate HWT had water free of thermotolerant coliforms at all three water sampling points. Our findings raise questions about the value of the data gathered through the international monitoring of HWT as predictors of water quality in the home, as well as questioning the ability of HWT, as actually practiced by vulnerable populations, to reduce exposure to waterborne diseases.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0428
2017-07-12
2018-07-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/97/1/tpmd160428.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0428&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators Forouzanfar MH, Alexander L, Anderson HR, Bachman VF, Biryukov S, Brauer M, Burnett R, Casey D, Coates MM, Cohen A, Delwiche K, Estep K, Frostad JJ, Astha KC, Kyu HH, Moradi-Lakeh M, Ng M, Slepak EL, Thomas BA, Wagner J, Aasvang GM, Abbafati C, Abbasoglu Ozgoren A, Abd-Allah F, Abera SF, Aboyans V, Abraham B, Abraham JP, Abubakar I, Abu-Rmeileh NM, Aburto TC, Achoki T, Adelekan A, Adofo K, Adou AK, Adsuar JC, Afshin A, Agardh EE, Al Khabouri MJ, Al Lami FH, Alam SS, Alasfoor D, Albittar MI, Alegretti MA, Aleman AV, Alemu ZA, Alfonso-Cristancho R, Alhabib S, Ali R, Ali MK, Alla F, Allebeck P, Allen PJ, Alsharif U, Alvarez E, Alvis-Guzman N, Amankwaa AA, Amare AT, Ameh EA, Ameli O, Amini H, Ammar W, Anderson BO, Antonio CA, Anwari P, Argeseanu Cunningham S, Arnlöv J, Arsenijevic VS, Artaman A, Asghar RJ, Assadi R, Atkins LS, Atkinson C, Avila MA, Awuah B, Badawi A, Bahit MC, Bakfalouni T, Balakrishnan K, Balalla S, Balu RK, Banerjee A, Barber RM, Barker-Collo SL, Barquera S, Barregard L, Barrero LH, Barrientos-Gutierrez T, Basto-Abreu AC, Basu A, Basu S, Basulaiman MO, Batis Ruvalcaba C, Beardsley J, Bedi N, Bekele T, Bell ML, Benjet C, Bennett DA, Benzian H, Bernabé E, Beyene TJ, Bhala N, Bhalla A, Bhutta ZA, Bikbov B, Bin Abdulhak AA, Blore JD, Blyth FM, Bohensky MA, Bora Başara B, Borges G, Bornstein NM, Bose D, Boufous S, Bourne RR, Brainin M, Brazinova A, Breitborde NJ, Brenner H, Briggs AD, Broday DM, Brooks PM, Bruce NG, Brugha TS, Brunekreef B, Buchbinder R, Bui LN, Bukhman G, Bulloch AG, Burch M, Burney PG, Campos-Nonato IR, Campuzano JC, Cantoral AJ, Caravanos J, Cárdenas R, Cardis E, Carpenter DO, Caso V, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castro RE, Catalá-López F, Cavalleri F, Çavlin A, Chadha VK, Chang JC, Charlson FJ, Chen H, Chen W, Chen Z, Chiang PP, Chimed-Ochir O, Chowdhury R, Christophi CA, Chuang TW, Chugh SS, Cirillo M, Claβen TK, Colistro V, Colomar M, Colquhoun SM, Contreras AG, Cooper C, Cooperrider K, Cooper LT, Coresh J, Courville KJ, Criqui MH, Cuevas-Nasu L, Damsere-Derry J, Danawi H, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dargan PI, Davis A, Davitoiu DV, Dayama A, de Castro EF, De la Cruz-Góngora V, De Leo D, de Lima G, Degenhardt L, del Pozo-Cruz B, Dellavalle RP, Deribe K, Derrett S, Des Jarlais DC, Dessalegn M, deVeber GA, Devries KM, Dharmaratne SD, Dherani MK, Dicker D, Ding EL, Dokova K, Dorsey ER, Driscoll TR, Duan L, Durrani AM, Ebel BE, Ellenbogen RG, Elshrek YM, Endres M, Ermakov SP, Erskine HE, Eshrati B, Esteghamati A, Fahimi S, Faraon EJ, Farzadfar F, Fay DF, Feigin VL, Feigl AB, Fereshtehnejad SM, Ferrari AJ, Ferri CP, Flaxman AD, Fleming TD, Foigt N, Foreman KJ, Paleo UF, Franklin RC, Gabbe B, Gaffikin L, Gakidou E, Gamkrelidze A, Gankpé FG, Gansevoort RT, García-Guerra FA, Gasana E, Geleijnse JM, Gessner BD, Gething P, Gibney KB, Gillum RF, Ginawi IA, Giroud M, Giussani G, Goenka S, Goginashvili K, Gomez Dantes H, Gona P, Gonzalez de Cosio T, González-Castell D, Gotay CC, Goto A, Gouda HN, Guerrant RL, Gugnani HC, Guillemin F, Gunnell D, Gupta R, Gupta R, Gutiérrez RA, Hafezi-Nejad N, Hagan H, Hagstromer M, Halasa YA, Hamadeh RR, Hammami M, Hankey GJ, Hao Y, Harb HL, Haregu TN, Haro JM, Havmoeller R, Hay SI, Hedayati MT, Heredia-Pi IB, Hernandez L, Heuton KR, Heydarpour P, Hijar M, Hoek HW, Hoffman HJ, Hornberger JC, Hosgood HD, Hoy DG, Hsairi M, Hu G, Hu H, Huang C, Huang JJ, Hubbell BJ, Huiart L, Husseini A, Iannarone ML, Iburg KM, Idrisov BT, Ikeda N, Innos K, Inoue M, Islami F, Ismayilova S, Jacobsen KH, Jansen HA, Jarvis DL, Jassal SK, Jauregui A, Jayaraman S, Jeemon P, Jensen PN, Jha V, Jiang F, Jiang G, Jiang Y, Jonas JB, Juel K, Kan H, Kany Roseline SS, Karam NE, Karch A, Karema CK, Karthikeyan G, Kaul A, Kawakami N, Kazi DS, Kemp AH, Kengne AP, Keren A, Khader YS, Khalifa SE, Khan EA, Khang YH, Khatibzadeh S, Khonelidze I, Kieling C, Kim D, Kim S, Kim Y, Kimokoti RW, Kinfu Y, Kinge JM, Kissela BM, Kivipelto M, Knibbs LD, Knudsen AK, Kokubo Y, Kose MR, Kosen S, Kraemer A, Kravchenko M, Krishnaswami S, Kromhout H, Ku T, Kuate Defo B, Kucuk Bicer B, Kuipers EJ, Kulkarni C, Kulkarni VS, Kumar GA, Kwan GF, Lai T, Lakshmana Balaji A, Lalloo R, Lallukka T, Lam H, Lan Q, Lansingh VC, Larson HJ, Larsson A, Laryea DO, Lavados PM, Lawrynowicz AE, Leasher JL, Lee JT, Leigh J, Leung R, Levi M, Li Y, Li Y, Liang J, Liang X, Lim SS, Lindsay MP, Lipshultz SE, Liu S, Liu Y, Lloyd BK, Logroscino G, London SJ, Lopez N, Lortet-Tieulent J, Lotufo PA, Lozano R, Lunevicius R, Ma J, Ma S, Machado VM, MacIntyre MF, Magis-Rodriguez C, Mahdi AA, Majdan M, Malekzadeh R, Mangalam S, Mapoma CC, Marape M, Marcenes W, Margolis DJ, Margono C, Marks GB, Martin RV, Marzan MB, Mashal MT, Masiye F, Mason-Jones AJ, Matsushita K, Matzopoulos R, Mayosi BM, Mazorodze TT, McKay AC, McKee M, McLain A, Meaney PA, Medina C, Mehndiratta MM, Mejia-Rodriguez F, Mekonnen W, Melaku YA, Meltzer M, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Mensah GA, Meretoja A, Mhimbira FA, Micha R, Miller TR, Mills EJ, Misganaw A, Mishra S, Mohamed Ibrahim N, Mohammad KA, Mokdad AH, Mola GL, Monasta L, Montañez Hernandez JC, Montico M, Moore AR, Morawska L, Mori R, Moschandreas J, Moturi WN, Mozaffarian D, Mueller UO, Mukaigawara M, Mullany EC, Murthy KS, Naghavi M, Nahas Z, Naheed A, Naidoo KS, Naldi L, Nand D, Nangia V, Narayan KM, Nash D, Neal B, Nejjari C, Neupane SP, Newton CR, Ngalesoni FN, Ngirabega Jde D, Nguyen G, Nguyen NT, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Nisar MI, Nogueira JR, Nolla JM, Nolte S, Norheim OF Norman RE, Norrving B, Nyakarahuka L, Oh IH, Ohkubo T, Olusanya BO, Omer SB, Opio JN, Orozco R, Pagcatipunan RS, Jr Pain AW, Pandian JD, Panelo CI, Papachristou C, Park EK, Parry CD, Paternina Caicedo AJ, Patten SB, Paul VK, Pavlin BI, Pearce N, Pedraza LS, Pedroza A, Pejin Stokic L, Pekericli A, Pereira DM, Perez-Padilla R, Perez-Ruiz F, Perico N, Perry SA, Pervaiz A, Pesudovs K, Peterson CB, Petzold M, Phillips MR, Phua HP, Plass D, Poenaru D, Polanczyk GV, Polinder S, Pond CD, Pope CA, Pope D, Popova S, Pourmalek F, Powles J, Prabhakaran D, Prasad NM, Qato DM, Quezada AD, Quistberg DA, Racapé L, Rafay A, Rahimi K, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rahman SU, Raju M, Rakovac I, Rana SM, Rao M, Razavi H, Reddy KS, Refaat AH, Rehm J, Remuzzi G, Ribeiro AL, Riccio PM, Richardson L, Riederer A, Robinson M, Roca A, Rodriguez A, Rojas-Rueda D, Romieu I, Ronfani L, Room R, Roy N, Ruhago GM, Rushton L, Sabin N, Sacco RL, Saha S, Sahathevan R, Sahraian MA, Salomon JA, Salvo D, Sampson UK, Sanabria JR, Sanchez LM, Sánchez-Pimienta TG, Sanchez-Riera L, Sandar L, Santos IS, Sapkota A, Satpathy M, Saunders JE, Sawhney M, Saylan MI, Scarborough P, Schmidt JC, Schneider IJ, Schöttker B, Schwebel DC, Scott JG, Seedat S, Sepanlou SG, Serdar B, Servan-Mori EE, Shaddick G, Shahraz S, Levy TS, Shangguan S, She J, Sheikhbahaei S, Shibuya K, Shin HH, Shinohara Y, Shiri R, Shishani K, Shiue I, Sigfusdottir ID, Silberberg DH, Simard EP, Sindi S, Singh A, Singh GM, Singh JA, Skirbekk V, Sliwa K, Soljak M, Soneji S, Søreide K, Soshnikov S, Sposato LA, Sreeramareddy CT, Stapelberg NJ, Stathopoulou V, Steckling N, Stein DJ, Stein MB, Stephens N, Stöckl H, Straif K, Stroumpoulis K, Sturua L, Sunguya BF, Swaminathan S, Swaroop M, Sykes BL, Tabb KM, Takahashi K, Talongwa RT, Tandon N, Tanne D, Tanner M, Tavakkoli M, Te Ao BJ, Teixeira CM, Téllez Rojo MM, Terkawi AS, Texcalac-Sangrador JL, Thackway SV, Thomson B, Thorne-Lyman AL, Thrift AG, Thurston GD, Tillmann T, Tobollik M, Tonelli M, Topouzis F, Towbin JA, Toyoshima H, Traebert J, Tran BX, Trasande L, Trillini M, Trujillo U, Dimbuene ZT, Tsilimbaris M, Tuzcu EM, Uchendu US, Ukwaja KN, Uzun SB, van de Vijver S, Van Dingenen R, van Gool CH, van Os J, Varakin YY, Vasankari TJ, Vasconcelos AM, Vavilala MS, Veerman LJ, Velasquez-Melendez G, Venketasubramanian N, Vijayakumar L, Villalpando S, Violante FS, Vlassov VV, Vollset SE, Wagner GR, Waller SG, Wallin MT, Wan X, Wang H, Wang J, Wang L, Wang W, Wang Y, Warouw TS, Watts CH, Weichenthal S, Weiderpass E, Weintraub RG, Werdecker A, Wessells KR, Westerman R, Whiteford HA, Wilkinson JD, Williams HC, Williams TN, Woldeyohannes SM, Wolfe CD, Wong JQ, Woolf AD, Wright JL, Wurtz B, Xu G, Yan LL, Yang G, Yano Y, Ye P, Yenesew M, Yentür GK, Yip P, Yonemoto N, Yoon SJ, Younis MZ, Younoussi Z, Yu C, Zaki ME, Zhao Y, Zheng Y, Zhou M, Zhu J, Zhu S, Zou X, Zunt JR, Lopez AD, Vos T, Murray CJ, , 2015. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 386: 22872323.[Crossref]
  2. Sobsey MD, , 2002. Managing Water in the Home: Accelerated Health Gains from Improved Water Supply. (WHO/SDE/WSH/02.07). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  3. World Health Organization, 2007. Combating Waterborne Disease at the Household Level. The International Network to Promote Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage. The Network. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  4. Bain R, Cronk R, Hossain R, Bonjour S, Onda K, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Hunter P, Prüss-Ustün A, Bartram J, , 2014. Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review. Trop Med Int Health 19: 917927.[Crossref]
  5. Fewtrell L, Kaufmann R, Kay D, Enanoria W, Haller L, Colford J, , 2005. Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 5: 4252.[Crossref]
  6. Arnold BF, Colford JMJ, , 2007. Treating water with chlorine at point-of-use to improve water quality and reduce child diarrhea in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 354364.
  7. Waddington H, Snilstveit B, White H, Fewtrell L, , 2009. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Combat Childhood Diarrhoea in Developing Countries. Delhi, India: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie).
  8. Clasen T, Alexander KT, Sinclair D, Boisson S, Peletz R, Chang HH, Majorin F, Cairncross S, , 2015. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10: CD004794.
  9. Schmidt WP, Cairncross S, , 2009. Household water treatment in poor populations: is there enough evidence for scaling up now? Environ Sci Technol 43: 986992.[Crossref]
  10. United Nations Children's Fund, 2009. Diarrhea: Why Children Are Still Dying and What Can Be Done. New York, NY: United Nations Children's Fund; Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  11. World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund, 2006. Core Questions on Drinking-Water and Sanitation for Household Surveys. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  12. World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund, 2005. Water for Life: Make It Happen. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation.
  13. Rosa G, Clasen T, , 2010. Estimating the scope of household water treatment in low- and medium-income countries. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 289300.[Crossref]
  14. Yang H, Wright JA, Gundry SW, , 2012. Household water treatment in China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 554555.[Crossref]
  15. Stone L, Campbell G, , 1984. The use and misuse of surveys in international development: an experiment from Nepal. Hum Organ 43: 2737.[Crossref]
  16. Boerma JT, Sommerfelt AE, , 1993. Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS): contributions and limitations. World Health Stat Q 46: 222226.
  17. Bartram J, Brocklehurst C, Fisher MB, Luyendijk R, Hossain R, Wardlaw T, Gordon B, , 2014. Global monitoring of water supply and sanitation: history, methods and future challenges. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11: 81378165.[Crossref]
  18. Arnold B, Arana B, Mausezahl D, Hubbard A, Colford JM, Jr, 2009. Evaluation of a pre-existing, 3-year household water treatment and handwashing intervention in rural Guatemala. Int J Epidemiol 38: 16511661.[Crossref]
  19. Mäusezahl D, Christen A, Pacheco GD, Tellez FA, Iriarte M, Zapata ME, Cevallos M, Hattendorf J, Cattaneo MD, Arnold B, Smith TA, Colford JM, Jr, 2009. Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) to reduce childhood diarrhoea in rural Bolivia: a cluster-randomized, controlled trial. PLoS Med 6: e1000125.[Crossref]
  20. Brown J, Sobsey MD, , 2012. Boiling as household water treatment in Cambodia: a longitudinal study of boiling practice and microbiological effectiveness. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 394398.[Crossref]
  21. Brown J, Clasen T, , 2012. High adherence is necessary to realize health gains from water quality interventions. PLoS One 7: e36735.[Crossref]
  22. Hunter PR, Zmirou-Navier D, Hartemann P, , 2009. Estimating the impact on health of poor reliability of drinking water interventions in developing countries. Sci Total Environ 407: 26212624.[Crossref]
  23. Enger KS, Nelson KL, Clasen T, Rose JB, Eisenberg JNS, , 2012. Linking quantitative microbial risk assessment and epidemiological data: informing safe drinking water trials in developing countries. Environ Sci Technol 46: 51605167.[Crossref]
  24. Rosa G, Huaylinos ML, Gil A, Lanata C, Clasen T, , 2014. Assessing the consistency and microbiological effectiveness of household water treatment practices by urban and rural populations claiming to treat their water at home: a case study in Peru. PLoS One 9: e114997.[Crossref]
  25. Rosa G, Kelly P, Clasen T, , 2016. Consistency of use and effectiveness of household water treatment practices among urban and rural populations claiming to treat their drinking water at home: a case study in Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 94: 445455.[Crossref]
  26. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International, 2007. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005–06: India, Vol. 1. Mumbai, India: IIPS.
  27. APHA, 2001. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 1st Edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation.
  28. Alexander N, , 2012. Review: analysis of parasite and other skewed counts. Trop Med Int Health 17: 684693.[Crossref]
  29. McElduff F, Cortina-Borja M, Chan S-K, Wade A, , 2010. When t-tests or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests won't do. Adv Physiol Educ 34: 128133.[Crossref]
  30. Shaheed A, Orgill J, Ratana C, Montgomery MA, Jeuland MA, Brown J, , 2014. Water quality risks of ‘improved’ water sources: evidence from Cambodia. Trop Med Int Health 19: 186194.[Crossref]
  31. Rufener S, Mäusezahl D, Mosler H-J, Weingartner R, , 2010. Quality of drinking-water at source and point-of-consumption: drinking cup as a high potential recontamination risk: a field study in Bolivia. J Health Popul Nutr 28: 3441.[Crossref]
  32. Clasen TF, Thao DH, Boisson S, Shipin O, , 2008. Microbiological effectiveness and cost of boiling to disinfect drinking water in rural Vietnam. Environ Sci Technol 42: 42554260.[Crossref]
  33. Psutka R, Peletz R, Michelo S, Kelly P, Clasen T, , 2011. Assessing the microbiological performance and potential cost of boiling drinking water in urban Zambia. Environ Sci Technol 45: 60956101.[Crossref]
  34. Clasen T, McLaughlin C, Nayaar N, Boisson S, Gupta R, Desai D, Shah N, , 2008. Microbiological effectiveness and cost of disinfecting water by boiling in semi-urban India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 407413.
  35. Oswald WE, Lescano AG, Bern C, Calderon MM, Cabrera L, Gilman RH, , 2007. Fecal contamination of drinking water within peri-urban households, Lima, Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 699704.
  36. Luby SP, Syed AH, Atiullah N, Faizan MK, Fisher-Hoch S, , 1999. Limited effectiveness of home drinking water purification efforts in Karachi, Pakistan. Int J Infect Dis 4: 37.[Crossref]
  37. Trevett AF, Carter RC, Tyrrel SF, , 2005. The importance of domestic water quality management in the context of faecal-oral disease transmission. J Water Health 3: 259270.[Crossref]
  38. Kirby MA, Nagel CL, Rosa G, Iyakaremye L, Zambrano LD, Clasen TF, , 2016. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: a national cross-sectional study. Sci Total Environ 571: 426434.[Crossref]
  39. Trevett AF, Carter R, Tyrrel S, , 2004. Water quality deterioration: a study of household drinking water quality in rural Honduras. Int J Environ Health Res 14: 273283.[Crossref]
  40. National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health, and ICF Macro, 2011. Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Calverton, MD: National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health, and ICF Macro.
  41. Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT) ICF International, 2012. Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey 2010–11. Calverton, MD: ZIMSTAT and ICF International Inc.
  42. WHO, 2012. A Toolkit for Monitoring and Evaluating Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Programmes . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  43. World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund (WHO/UNICEF), 2014. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water: 2014 Update. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO/UNICEF.
  44. World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund WHO/UNICEF, 2015. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: 2015 Update and MDG Assessment. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO/UNICEF.
  45. Kayser GL, Moriarty P, Fonseca C, Bartram J, , 2013. Domestic water service delivery indicators and frameworks for monitoring, evaluation, policy and planning: a review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10: 48124835.[Crossref]
  46. World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund, 2015. Methodological Note: Proposed Indicator Framework for Monitoring SDG Targets on Drinking-Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Wastewater. Available at: http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/Statistical-note-on-SDG-targets-for-WASH-and-wastewater_WHO-UNICEF_21September2015_Final.pdf. Accessed December 20, 2016.
  47. Kostyla C, Bain R, Cronk R, Bartram J, , 2015. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review. Sci Total Environ 514: 333343.[Crossref]
  48. Bain R, Cronk R, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Bartram J, , 2014. Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 11: e1001644.[Crossref]
  49. Foster T, , 2013. Predictors of sustainability for community-managed handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. Environ Sci Technol 47: 1203712046.[Crossref]
  50. Shields KF, Bain RE, Cronk R, Wright J, Bartram J, , 2015. Association of supply type with fecal contamination of source water and household stored drinking water in developing countries: a bivariate meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 123: 12221231.[Crossref]
  51. Zwane AP, Zinman J, Van Dusen E, Pariente W, Null C, Miguel E, Kremer M, Karlan DS, Hornbeck R, Giné X, Duflo E, Devoto F, Crepon B, Banerjee A, , 2011. Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108: 18211826.[Crossref]
  52. Arnold BF, Khush RS, Ramaswamy P, Rajkumar P, Durairaj N, Ramaprabha P, Balakrishnan K, Colford JM, Jr, 2015. Reactivity in rapidly collected hygiene and toilet spot check measurements: a cautionary note for longitudinal studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 159162.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0428
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0428
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplemental Figure and Table

  • Received : 27 May 2016
  • Accepted : 21 Nov 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error