Volume 95, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat. There is limited information from Rwanda on AMR trends. This longitudinal study aimed to describe temporal trends of antibiotic susceptibility among common bacteria. We collated the antimicrobial susceptibility results of bacteria cultured from clinical specimens collected from inpatients and outpatients and submitted to the microbiology laboratory at King Faisal Hospital, Kigali, Rwanda, from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013. Differences in antimicrobial susceptibility between the first and fifth year of the study for each bacterial species was assessed using χ test. Of 5,296 isolates collected, 46.7% were , 18.4% were spp., 5.9% were spp., 7.1% were spp., 11.7% were , and 10.3% were spp. Colistin and imipenem had greatest activity against gram-negative bacteria. spp. showed the greatest resistance profile to antimicrobials tested, relative to other gram-negative bacteria. Vancomycin retained excellent activity against and species (average susceptibility was 100% and 99.4%, respectively). Trend analysis determined that resistance to imipenem increased significantly among , , , and isolates; there was also rising resistance to colistin among and s species. Only demonstrated increased resistance to gentamicin. For gram-positive pathogens, vancomycin susceptibility increased over time for species, but was unchanged for . Our data suggest that resistance to imipenem and colistin are rising among gram-negative bacteria in Rwanda. Proper infection control practices and antimicrobial stewardship will be important to address this emerging threat.


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  • Received : 17 May 2016
  • Accepted : 20 Sep 2016
  • Published online : 07 Dec 2016

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