1921
Volume 95, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic in the Americas is of significant public health importance due to the lack of effective control and prevention strategies, severe disease morbidity among susceptible populations, and potential for persistent arthralgia and long-term impaired physical functionality. Using surveillance data of suspected CHIKV cases, we describe the first reported outbreak in the U.S. Virgin Islands. CHIKV incidence was highest among individuals aged 55–64 years (13.1 cases per 1,000 population) and lowest among individuals aged 0–14 years (1.8 cases per 1,000 population). Incidence was higher among women compared to men (6.6 and 5.0 cases per 1,000 population, respectively). More than half of reported laboratory-positive cases experienced fever lasting 2–7 days, chills/rigor, myalgia, anorexia, and headache. No clinical symptoms apart from the suspected case definition of fever ≥ 38°C and arthralgia were significantly associated with being a reported laboratory-positive case. These results contribute to our knowledge of demographic risk factors and clinical manifestations of CHIKV disease and may aid in mitigating future CHIKV outbreaks in the Caribbean.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0288
2016-10-05
2017-11-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/95/4/885.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0288&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016. Chikungunya Virus. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/geo/index.html. Accessed May 3, 2016.
  2. Brighton SW, Prozesky OW, de la Harpe AL, , 1983. Chikungunya virus infection. A retrospective study of 107 cases. S Afr Med J 63: 313315. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6298956. Accessed April 16, 2015.
  3. Calabrese LH, , 2008. Emerging viral infections and arthritis: the role of the rheumatologist. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 4: 23.[Crossref]
  4. Schilte C, Staikovsky F, Couderc T, Madec Y, Carpentier F, Kassab S, Albert ML, Lecuit M, Michault A, , 2013. Chikungunya virus-associated long-term arthralgia: a 36-month prospective longitudinal study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2137.[Crossref]
  5. Queyriaux B, Simon F, Grandadam M, Michel R, Tolou H, Boutin J-P, , 2008. Clinical burden of chikungunya virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 8: 23.[Crossref]
  6. Economopoulou A, Dominguez M, Helynck B, Sissoko D, Wichmann O, Quenel P, Germonneau P, Quatresous I, , 2009. Atypical chikungunya virus infections: clinical manifestations, mortality and risk factors for severe disease during the 2005–2006 outbreak on Réunion. Epidemiol Infect 137: 534541.[Crossref]
  7. Dupuis-Maguiraga L, Noret M, Brun S, Le Grand R, Gras G, Roques P, , 2012. Chikungunya disease: infection-associated markers from the acute to the chronic phase of arbovirus-induced arthralgia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1446.[Crossref]
  8. Weaver SC, Osorio JE, Livengood JA, Chen R, Stinchcomb DT, , 2012. Chikungunya virus and prospects for a vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines 11: 10871101.[Crossref]
  9. Caglioti C, Lalle E, Castilletti C, Carletti F, Capobianchi MR, Bordi L, , 2013. Chikungunya virus infection: an overview. New Microbiol 36: 211227. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23912863. Accessed March 13, 2015.
  10. Fischer M, Staples EJ, , 2014. Notes from the Field: Chikungunya Virus Spreads in the Americas: Caribbean and South America, 2013–2014. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6322a5.htm?s_cid=mm6322a5_w. Accessed April 24, 2015.
  11. Central Intelligence Agency, 2014. The CIA World Factbook, U.S. Virgin Islands. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vq.html. Accessed May 30, 2015.
  12. Ramachandran V, Kaur P, Kanagasabai K, Vadivoo S, Murhekar MV, , 2014. Persistent arthralgia among chikungunya patients and associated risk factors in Chennai, south India. J Postgrad Med 60: 36.[Crossref]
  13. Mowatt L, Jackson ST, , 2014. Chikungunya in the Caribbean: an epidemic in the making. Infect Dis Ther 3: 6368.[Crossref]
  14. U.S.V.I. Bureau of Economic Research, 2014. Cruise Passenger Arrivals: U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014. Available at: http://www.usviber.org/CP14.pdf. Accessed May 31, 2015.
  15. U.S.V.I. Bureau of Economic Research, 2014. Air Visitor Arrivals: U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014. Available at: http://www.usviber.org/A14.pdf. Accessed May 31, 2015.
  16. Ellis E, , 2015. Chikungunya Surveillance Weekly Report: US Virgin Islands Department of Health.
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016. Revised Diagnostic Testing for Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses in US Public Health Laboratories.
  18. World Health Organization, 2009. Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Chikungunya Fever. Available at: http://www.wpro.who.int/mvp/topics/ntd/Chikungunya_WHO_SEARO.pdf. Accessed May 3, 2015.
  19. StataCorp. 2011. Stata Statistical Software: Release 12. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.
  20. Coutinho LMS, Scazufca M, Menezes PR, , 2008. Methods for estimating prevalence ratios in cross-sectional studies. Rev Saude Publica 42: 992998.[Crossref]
  21. Stoddard ST, Morrison AC, Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Paz Soldan V, Kochel TJ, Kitron U, Elder JP, Scott TW, , 2009. The role of human movement in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e481.[Crossref]
  22. Sissoko D, Moendandze A, Malvy D, Giry C, Ezzedine K, Solet JL, Pierre V, , 2008. Seroprevalence and risk factors of chikungunya virus infection in Mayotte, Indian Ocean, 2005–2006: a population-based survey. PLoS One 3: e3066.[Crossref]
  23. van Genderen FT, Krishnadath I, Sno R, Grunberg MG, Zijlmans W, Adhin MR, , 2016. First chikungunya outbreak in Suriname; clinical and epidemiological features. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004625.[Crossref]
  24. Gay N, Rousset D, Huc P, Matheus S, Ledrans M, Rosine J, Cassadou S, Noël H, , 2016. Seroprevalence of Asian lineage chikungunya virus infection on Saint Martin Island, 7 months after the 2013 emergence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 94: 393396.[Crossref]
  25. Pialoux G, Gaüzère B-A, Strobel M, , 2006. Chikungunya virus infection: review through an epidemic [in French]. Med Mal Infect 36: 253263.[Crossref]
  26. Chopra A, Anuradha V, Ghorpade R, Saluja M, , 2012. Acute chikungunya and persistent musculoskeletal pain following the 2006 Indian epidemic: a 2-year prospective rural community study. Epidemiol Infect 140: 842850.[Crossref]
  27. Win MK, Chow A, Dimatatac F, Go CJ, Leo YS, , 2010. Chikungunya fever in Singapore: acute clinical and laboratory features, and factors associated with persistent arthralgia. J Clin Virol 49: 111114.[Crossref]
  28. Mohd Zim MA, Sam I-C, Omar SFS, Chan YF, AbuBakar S, Kamarulzaman A, , 2013. Chikungunya infection in Malaysia: comparison with dengue infection in adults and predictors of persistent arthralgia. J Clin Virol 56: 141145.[Crossref]
  29. Russell RC, Webb CE, Williams CR, Ritchie SA, , 2005. Mark-release-recapture study to measure dispersal of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Med Vet Entomol 19: 451457.[Crossref]
  30. Boyer S, Maillot L, Gouagna L-C, Fontenille D, Chadee DD, Lemperiere G, , 2013. Diel activity patterns of male Aedes albopictus in the laboratory. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 29: 7477.[Crossref]
  31. Getis A, Morrison AC, Gray K, Scott TW, , 2003. Characteristics of the spatial pattern of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, in Iquitos, Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 494505. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14695086. Accessed October 3, 2015.
  32. Gubler DJ, , 2011. Dengue, urbanization and globalization: the unholy trinity of the 21st century. Trop Med Health 39 (Suppl 4): 311.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0288
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0288
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 13 Apr 2016
  • Accepted : 06 Jun 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error