View Affiliations Hide Affiliations
- The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
- Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 95, Issue 4, Oct 2016, p. 741 - 745
oa Licensed Dengue Vaccine: Public Health Conundrum and Scientific Challenge
A tetravalent live attenuated vaccine composed of chimeras of yellow fever 17D and the four dengue viruses (chimeric yellow fever dengue [CYD]) manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur has completed phase III clinical testing in over 35,000 children 2–16 years of age. The vaccine was recently licensed in four countries. During the first 2 years of observation, CYD vaccine efficacy ranged between 30% and 79% in 10 different countries with an overall efficacy of 56.8%. During year 3, there was an overall efficacy against hospitalization of 16.7%, but a relative risk of hospitalization of 1.6 among children younger than 9 years and 4.95 in children 5 years of age and younger. Vaccination of seronegative children resulted in universal broad dengue neutralizing antibody responses, but poor protection against breakthrough dengue cases. Unless proven otherwise, such breakthrough cases in vaccinated subjects should be regarded as vaccine antibody-enhanced (ADE). The provenance of these cases can be studied serologically using original antigenic sin immune responses in convalescent sera. In conventional dengue vaccine efficacy clinical trials, persons vaccinated as seronegatives may be hospitalized with breakthrough ADE infections, whereas in the placebo group, dengue infection of monotypic immunes results in hospitalization. Vaccine efficacy trial design must identify dengue disease etiology by separately measuring efficacy in seronegatives and seropositives. The reason(s) why CYD vaccine failed to raise protective dengue virus immunity are unknown. To achieve a safe and protective dengue vaccine, careful studies of monotypic CYD vaccines in humans should precede field trials of tetravalent formulations.
[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.