1921
Control and Elimination of Plasmodium vivax Malaria: The Evidence Base
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

The continued success of efforts to reduce the global malaria burden will require sustained funding for interventions specifically targeting . The optimal use of limited financial resources necessitates cost and cost-effectiveness analyses of strategies for diagnosing and treating and vector control tools. Herein, we review the existing published evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of interventions for controlling , identifying nine studies focused on diagnosis and treatment and seven studies focused on vector control. Although many of the results from the much more extensive literature can be applied to , it is not always possible to extrapolate results from –specific cost-effectiveness analyses. Notably, there is a need for additional studies to evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of radical cure with primaquine for the prevention of relapses with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase testing.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0182
2016-12-28
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/95/6_Suppl/52.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0182&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Gething PW, Elyazar IRF, Moyes CL, Smith DL, Battle KE, Guerra CA, Patil AP, Tatem AJ, Howes RE, Myers MF, George DB, Horby P, Wertheim HFL, Price RN, Mueller I, Baird K, Hay SI, , 2012. A long neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1814.[Crossref]
  2. Battle KE, Gething PW, Elyazar IRF, Moyes CL, Sinka ME, Howes RE, Guerra CA, Price RN, Baird JK, Hay SI, Hay SI, Price R, Baird JK, , 2012. The global public health significance of Plasmodium vivax . , eds. Advances in Parasitology, Vol 80: Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax: History, Hiatus and Hubris, Part A. Elsevier, 1111.
  3. Price RN, Tjitra E, Guerra CA, Yeung S, White NJ, Anstey NM, , 2007. Vivax malaria: neglected and not benign. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 7987.
  4. World Health Organization, 2015. World Malaria Report 2015. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/200018/1/9789241565158_eng.pdf. Accessed November 23, 2016.
  5. World Health Organization (WHO), 2015. Control and Elimination of Plasmodium vivax: A Technical Brief. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  6. Sattabongkot J, Tsuboi T, Zollner GE, Sirichaisinthop J, Cui LW, , 2004. Plasmodium vivax transmission: chances for control? Trends Parasitol 20: 192198.[Crossref]
  7. Coura JR, Suarez-Mutis M, Ladeia-Andrade S, , 2006. A new challenge for malaria control in Brazil: asymptomatic Plasmodium infection: a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 101: 229237.
  8. Goodman CA, Coleman PG, Mills AJ, , 1999. Cost-effectiveness of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 354: 378385.[Crossref]
  9. Morel CM, Lauer JA, Evans DB, , 2005. Achieving the millennium development goals for health: cost effectiveness analysis of strategies to combat malaria in developing countries. BMJ 331: 1299.[Crossref]
  10. White MT, Conteh L, Cibulskis R, Ghani AC, , 2011. Costs and cost-effectiveness of malaria control interventions: a systematic review. Malar J 10: 337.[Crossref]
  11. John GK, Douglas NM, von Seidlein L, Nosten F, Baird JK, White NJ, Price RN, , 2012. Primaquine radical cure of Plasmodium vivax: a critical review of the literature. Malar J 11: 280.[Crossref]
  12. Howes RE, Battle KE, Satyagraha AW, Baird JK, Hay SI, Hay SI, Price R, Baird JK, , 2013. G6PD deficiency: global distribution, genetic variants and primaquine therapy. , eds. Advances Parasitol, Vol 81: Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax: History, Hiatus and Hubris, Part B. Elsevier, 133201.[Crossref]
  13. Robinson LJ, Wampfler R, Betuela I, Karl S, White MT, Suen CSNLW, Hofmann NE, Kinboro B, Waltmann A, Brewster J, Lorry L, Tarongka N, Samol L, Silkey M, Bassat Q, Siba PM, Schofield L, Felger I, Mueller I, , 2015. Strategies for understanding and reducing the Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoite reservoir in Papua New Guinean children: a randomised placebo-controlled trial and mathematical model. PLoS Med 12: e1001891.[Crossref]
  14. Drummond MF, O'Brien B, Stoddart GL, Torrance GW, , 1997. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  15. Attanayake N, Fox-Rushby J, Mills A, , 2000. Household costs of ‘malaria’ morbidity: a study in Matale district, Sri Lanka. Trop Med Int Health 5: 595606.[Crossref]
  16. Drake TL, Devine A, Yeung S, Day NPJ, White LJ, Lubell Y, , 2016. Dynamic transmission economic evaluation of infectious disease interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic literature review. Health Econ 25: 124139.[Crossref]
  17. Maire N, Shillcutt SD, Walker D, Tediosi F, Smith T, , 2011. Cost-effectiveness of the introduction of a pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine into the expanded program on immunization in sub-Saharan Africa: analysis of uncertainties using a stochastic individual-based simulation model of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Value Health 14: 10281038.[Crossref]
  18. Drummond MF, Jefferson TO, , 1996. Guidelines for authors and peer reviewers of economic submissions to the BMJ . BMJ 313: 275283.[Crossref]
  19. Claxton K, Revill P, Sculpher M, Wilkinson T, Cairns J, Briggs A, , 2014. The Gates Reference Case for Economic Evaluation. Seattle, WA: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
  20. de Oliveira MRF, Gomes AD, Toscano CM, , 2010. Cost effectiveness of OptiMal (R) rapid diagnostic test for malaria in remote areas of the Amazon Region, Brazil. Malar J 9: 277.[Crossref]
  21. Goodman CA, Coleman PG, Mills A, , 2000. Economic Analysis of Malaria Control in Sub-Saharan Africa. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization Global Forum for Health Research.
  22. Coleman PG, Morel C, Shillcutt S, Goodman C, Mills AJ, , 2004. A threshold analysis of the cost-effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapies in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 196204.
  23. Ley B, Luter N, Espino FE, Devine A, Kalnoky M, Lubell Y, Thriemer K, Baird JK, Poirot E, Conan N, Kheong CC, Dysoley L, Khan WA, Dion-Berboso AG, Bancone G, Hwang J, Kumar R, Price RN, von Seidlein L, Domingo GJ, , 2015. The challenges of introducing routine G6PD testing into radical cure: a workshop report. Malar J 14: 377.[Crossref]
  24. Briggs A, Sculpher M, , 1998. An introduction to Markov modelling for economic evaluation. Pharmacoeconomics 13: 397409.[Crossref]
  25. Fernando SD, Karunaweera ND, Fernando WP, Attanayake N, Wickremasinghe AR, , 2004. A cost analysis of the use of the rapid, whole-blood, immunochromatographic P.f/P.v. assay for the diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria in a rural area of Sri Lanka. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98: 513.[Crossref]
  26. Albertini A, Djalle D, Faye B, Gamboa D, Luchavez J, Mationg ML, Mwangoka G, Oyibo W, Bennett J, Incardona S, Lee E, , 2012. Preliminary enquiry into the availability, price and quality of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the private health sector of six malaria-endemic countries. Trop Med Int Health 17: 147152.[Crossref]
  27. Hansen KS, Grieve E, Mikhail A, Mayan I, Mohammed N, Anwar M, Baktash SH, Drake TL, Whitty CJM, Rowland MW, Leslie TJ, , 2015. Cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnosis using rapid diagnostic tests compared to microscopy or clinical symptoms alone in Afghanistan. Malar J 14: 217.[Crossref]
  28. Douglas NM, Anstey NM, Angus BJ, Nosten F, Price RN, , 2010. Artemisinin combination therapy for vivax malaria. Lancet Infect Dis 10: 405416.[Crossref]
  29. Bualombai P, Prajakwong S, Aussawatheerakul N, Congpoung K, Sudathip S, Thimasarn K, Sirichaisinthop J, Indaratna K, Kidson C, Srisuphanand M, , 2003. Determining cost-effectiveness and cost component of three malaria diagnostic models being used in remote non-microscope areas. SE Asian J Trop Med Pub Health 34: 322333.
  30. Davis WA, Clarke PM, Siba PM, Karunajeewa HA, Davy C, Mueller I, Davis TME, , 2011. Cost-effectiveness of artemisinin combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria in children: data from Papua New Guinea. Bull World Health Organ 89: 211220.[Crossref]
  31. Smithuis FM, Moe Kyaw K, Phe UO, van der Broek I, Katterman N, Rogers C, Almeida P, Kager PA, Stepniewska K, Lubell Y, Simpson JA, White NJ, , 2013. The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on the incidence and prevalence of malaria in children in an area of unstable seasonal transmission in western Myanmar. Malar J 12: 363.[Crossref]
  32. Peixoto HM, Brito MAM, Romero GAS, Monteiro WM, de Lacerda MVG, de Oliveira MRF, , 2016. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rapid diagnostic tests for G6PD deficiency in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Malar J 15: 82.[Crossref]
  33. Peixoto HM, Brito MAM, Romero GAS, Monteiro WM, de Lacerda MVG, de Oliveira MRF, , 2015. G6PD deficiency in male individuals infected by Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: a cost study. Malar J 14: 26.[Crossref]
  34. Kamolratanakul P, Butraporn P, Prasittisuk M, Prasittisuk C, Indaratna K, , 2001. Cost-effectiveness and sustainability of lambdacyhalothrin-treated mosquito nets in comparison to DDT spraying for malaria control in western Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 279284.
  35. Butraporn P, Kamolratanakul P, Prasittisuk M, Prasittisuk C, Indaratna K, , 1999. Cost-effectiveness analysis of lambdacyhalothrin-treated nets for malaria control: the patients' perspective. SE Asian J Trop Med Pub Health 30: 427431.
  36. Bhatia MR, Fox-Rushby J, Mills A, , 2004. Cost-effectiveness of malaria control interventions when malaria mortality is low: insecticide-treated nets versus in-house residual spraying in India. Soc Sci Med 59: 525539.[Crossref]
  37. Morel CM, Ngo Duc T, Erhart A, Nguyen Xuan X, Grietens KP, Le Xuan H, Le Khan T, Pham Van K, Nguyen Manh H, Coosemans M, D'Alessandro U, Mills A, , 2013. Cost-effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated hammocks in preventing malaria in south-central Vietnam. PLoS One 8: e58205.[Crossref]
  38. Kroeger A, Ayala C, Lara AM, , 2002. Unit costs for house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides in Colombia: a management tool for the control of vector-borne disease. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96: 405416.[Crossref]
  39. Kere JF, Kere NK, , 1992. Bed-nets or spraying: cost analyses of malaria control in The Solomon Islands. Health Policy Plan 7: 382386.[Crossref]
  40. Verle P, Lieu TTT, Kongs A, Van der Stuyft P, Coosemans M, , 1999. Control of malaria vectors: cost analysis in a province of northern Vietnam. Trop Med Int Health 4: 139145.[Crossref]
  41. van Vugt M, van Beest A, Sicuri E, van Tulder M, Grobusch MP, , 2011. Malaria treatment and prophylaxis in endemic and nonendemic countries: evidence on strategies and their cost-effectiveness. Future Microbiol 6: 14851500.[Crossref]
  42. Price RN, von Seidlein L, Valecha N, Nosten F, Baird JK, White NJ, , 2014. Global extent of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 14: 982991.[Crossref]
  43. Douglas NM, Anstey NM, Angus BJ, Nosten F, Price RN, , 2010. Artemisinin combination therapy for vivax malaria. Lancet Infect Dis 10: 405416.[Crossref]
  44. Alonso PL, Barnwell JW, Bell D, Hanson K, Mendis K, Moonen B, Newman RD, de Savigny D, Schapira A, Slutsker L, Tanner M, Teuscher T, malERA Consultative Group on Diagnoses and Diagnostics; , 2011. A research agenda for malaria eradication: diagnoses and diagnostics. PLoS Med 8: e1000396.[Crossref]
  45. Abba K, Kirkham AJ, Olliaro PL, Deeks JJ, Donegan S, Garner P, Takwoingi Y, , 2014. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12: CD011431.
  46. UNICEF, 2016. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests Market and Supply Update. Copenhagen, Denmark: UNICEF Supply Division.
  47. Bassat Q, , 2011. The use of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1325.[Crossref]
  48. Yadav P, Cohen JL, Alphs S, Arkedis J, Larson PS, Massaga J, Sabot O, , 2012. Trends in availability and prices of subsidized ACT over the first year of the AMFm: evidence from remote regions of Tanzania. Malar J 11: 299.[Crossref]
  49. Wilairatana P, Tangpukdee N, Kano S, Krudsood S, , 2010. Primaquine administration after falciparum malaria treatment in malaria hypoendemic areas with high incidence of falciparum and vivax mixed infection: pros and cons. Korean J Parasitol 48: 175177.[Crossref]
  50. Bray PG, Deed S, Fox E, Kalkanidis M, Mungthin M, Deady LW, Tilley L, , 2005. Primaquine synergises the activity of chloroquine against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum . Biochem Pharmacol 70: 11581166.[Crossref]
  51. World Health Organization (WHO), 2008. WHO-CHOICE. Choosing Interventions That are Cost-Effective. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  52. Llanos-Cuentas A, Lacerda MV, Rueangweerayut R, Krudsood S, Gupta SK, Kochar SK, Arthur P, Chuenchom N, Moehrle JJ, Duparc S, Ugwuegbulam C, Kleim J-P, Carter N, Green JA, Kellam L, , 2014. Tafenoquine plus chloroquine for the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria (DETECTIVE): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, phase 2b dose-selection study. Lancet 383: 10491058.[Crossref]
  53. Baird JK, Fryauff DJ, Hoffman SL, , 2003. Primaquine for prevention of malaria in travelers. Clin Infect Dis 37: 16591667.[Crossref]
  54. Tinley KE, Loughlin AM, Jepson A, Barnett ED, , 2010. Evaluation of a rapid qualitative enzyme chromatographic test for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 210214.[Crossref]
  55. Kim S, Nguon C, Guillard B, Duong S, Chy S, Sum S, Nhem S, Bouchier C, Tichit M, Christophel E, Taylor WRJ, Baird JK, Menard D, , 2011. Performance of the CareStart G6PD deficiency screening test, a point-of-care diagnostic for primaquine therapy screening. PLoS One 6: e28357.[Crossref]
  56. von Seidlein L, Auburn S, Espino F, Shanks D, Cheng Q, McCarthy J, Baird K, Moyes C, Howes R, Menard D, Bancone G, Winasti-Satyahraha A, Vestergaard LS, Green J, Domingo G, Yeung S, Price R, , 2013. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report. Malar J 12: 112.[Crossref]
  57. Domingo GJ, Satyagraha AW, Anvikar A, Baird K, Bancone G, Bansil P, Carter N, Cheng Q, Culpepper J, Eziefula C, Fukuda M, Green J, Hwang J, Lacerda M, McGray S, Menard D, Nosten F, Nuchprayoon I, Oo NN, Bualombai P, Pumpradit W, Qian K, Recht J, Roca A, Satimai W, Sovannaroth S, Vestergaard LS, Von Seidlein L, , 2013. G6PD testing in support of treatment and elimination of malaria: recommendations for evaluation of G6PD tests. Malar J 12: 391.[Crossref]
  58. Howes RE, Piel FB, Patil AP, Nyangiri OA, Gething PW, Dewi M, Hogg MM, Battle KE, Padilla CD, Baird JK, Hay SI, , 2012. G6PD deficiency prevalence and estimates of affected populations in malaria endemic countries: a geostatistical model-based map. PLoS Med 9: e1001339.[Crossref]
  59. Reimer LJ, Thomsen EK, Tisch DJ, Henry-Halldin CN, Zimmerman PA, Baea ME, Dagoro H, Susapu M, Hetzel MW, Bockarie MJ, Michael E, Siba PM, Kazura JW, , 2013. Insecticidal bed nets and filariasis transmission in Papua New Guinea. N Engl J Med 369: 745753.[Crossref]
  60. Kiware SS, Chitnis N, Devine GJ, Moore SJ, Majambere S, Killeen GF, , 2012. Biologically meaningful coverage indicators for eliminating malaria transmission. Biol Lett 8: 874877.[Crossref]
  61. Sinka ME, Bangs MJ, Manguin S, Chareonviriyaphap T, Patil AP, Temperley WH, Gething PW, Elyazar IRF, Kabaria CW, Harbach RE, Hay SI, , 2011. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic precis. Parasit Vectors 4: 89.[Crossref]
  62. Thang ND, Erhart A, Speybroeck N, Xa NX, Thanh NN, Ky PV, Hung LX, Thuan LK, Coosemans M, D'Alessandro U, , 2009. Long-lasting insecticidal hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam. PLoS One 4: e7369.[Crossref]
  63. Grietens KP, Xa Nguyen X, Ribera JM, Thang Ngo D, van Bortel W, Nhat Truong B, Ky Pham V, Xuan HL, D'Alessandro U, Erhart A, , 2012. Social determinants of long lasting insecticidal hammock-use among the Ra-Glai ethnic minority in Vietnam: implications for forest malaria control. PLoS One 7: e29991.[Crossref]
  64. Utzinger J, Tozan Y, Singer BH, , 2001. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control. Trop Med Int Health 6: 677687.[Crossref]
  65. Lengeler C, , 2004. Insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000363.
  66. Syafruddin D, Bangs MJ, Sidik D, Elyazar I, Asih PBS, Chan K, Nurleila S, Nixon C, Hendarto J, Wahid I, Ishak H, Bogh C, Grieco JP, Achee NL, Baird JK, , 2014. Impact of a spatial repellent on malaria incidence in two villages in Sumba, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 10791087.[Crossref]
  67. Mulla MS, Thavara U, Tawatsin A, Kong-Ngamsuk W, Chompoosri J, , 2001. Mosquito burden and impact on the poor: measures and costs for personal protection in some communities in Thailand. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 17: 153159.
  68. Snehalatha KS, Ramaiah KD, Kumar KNV, Das PK, , 2003. The mosquito problem and type and costs of personal protection measures used in rural and urban communities in Pondicherry region, south India. Acta Trop 88: 39.[Crossref]
  69. Babu BV, Mishra S, Mishra S, Swain BK, , 2007. Personal-protection measures against mosquitoes: a study of practices and costs in a district, in the Indian state of Orissa, where malaria and lymphatic filariasis are co-endemic. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 101: 601609.[Crossref]
  70. Wafula F, Agweyu A, Macintyre K, , 2013. Regional and temporal trends in malaria commodity costs: an analysis of Global Fund data for 79 countries. Malar J 12: 466.[Crossref]
  71. Picard J, Mills A, , 1992. The effect of malaria on work time: analysis of data from 2 Nepali districts. J Trop Med Hyg 95: 382389.
  72. Konradsen F, van der Hoek W, Amerasinghe PH, Amerasinghe FP, Fonseka KT, , 1997. Household responses to malaria and their costs: a study from rural Sri Lanka. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91: 127130.[Crossref]
  73. Mills A, , 1993. The household costs of malaria in Nepal. Trop Med Parasitol 44: 913.
  74. Fernando SD, Gunawardena DM, Bandara M, De Silva D, Carter R, Mendis KN, Wickremasinghe AR, , 2003. The impact of repeated malaria attacks on the school performance of children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 582588.
  75. Fernando D, De Silva D, Wickremasinghe R, , 2003. Short-term impact of an acute attack of malaria on the cognitive performance of schoolchildren living in a malaria-endemic area of Sri Lanka. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 633639.[Crossref]
  76. Teklehaimanot A, Mejia P, , 2008. Malaria and poverty. Reducing the impact of poverty on health and human development. Scientific Approaches 1136: 3237.
  77. Gallup JL, Sachs JD, , 2001. The economic burden of malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64: 8596.
  78. Sachs J, Malaney P, , 2002. The economic and social burden of malaria. Nature 415: 680685.[Crossref]
  79. Tusting LS, Willey B, Lucas H, Thompson J, Kafy HT, Smith R, Lindsay SW, , 2013. Socioeconomic development as an intervention against malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 382: 963972.[Crossref]
  80. Qi Q, Guerra CA, Moyes CL, Elyazar IRF, Gething PW, Hay SI, Tatem AJ, , 2012. The effects of urbanization on global Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission. Malar J 11: 403.[Crossref]
  81. Alonso PL, Brown G, Tanner M, malERA Consultative Group on Integration Strategies; , 2011. A research agenda for malaria eradication: cross-cutting issues for eradication. PLoS Med 8: e1000404.[Crossref]
  82. Roy M, Bouma MJ, Ionides EL, Dhiman RC, Pascual M, , 2013. The potential elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria by relapse treatment: insights from a transmission model and surveillance data from NW India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: 1979.[Crossref]
  83. White MT, Karl S, Battle KE, Hay SI, Mueller I, Ghani AC, , 2014. Modelling the contribution of the hypnozoite reservoir to Plasmodium vivax transmission. eLife 3: 04692.[Crossref]
  84. Aguas R, Ferreira MU, Gomes MGM, , 2012. Modeling the effects of relapse in the transmission dynamics of malaria parasites. J Parasitol Res 2012: 921715.[Crossref]
  85. Chamchod F, Beier JC, , 2013. Modeling Plasmodium vivax: relapses, treatment, seasonality, and G6PD deficiency. J Theor Biol 316: 2534.[Crossref]
  86. Price RN, Douglas NM, Anstey NM, von Seidlein L, , 2011. Plasmodium vivax treatments: what are we looking for? Curr Opin Infect Dis 24: 578585.[Crossref]
  87. Mueller I, Galinski MR, Baird JK, Carlton JM, Kochar DK, Alonso PL, del Portillo HA, , 2009. Key gaps in the knowledge of Plasmodium vivax, a neglected human malaria parasite. Lancet Infect Dis 9: 555566.[Crossref]
  88. Sabot O, Cohen JM, Hsiang MS, Kahn JG, Basu S, Tang L, Zheng B, Gao Q, Zou L, Tatarsky A, Aboobakar S, Usas J, Barrett S, Cohen JL, Jamison DT, Feachem RGA, , 2010. Malaria elimination. 4. Costs and financial feasibility of malaria elimination. Lancet 376: 16041615.[Crossref]
  89. Mills A, Lubell Y, Hanson K, , 2008. Malaria eradication: the economic, financial and institutional challenge. Malar J 7 (Suppl 1): S11.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0182
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0182
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplementary PDF

  • Received : 07 Mar 2016
  • Accepted : 03 Jun 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error