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Control and Elimination of Plasmodium vivax Malaria: The Evidence Base
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by , accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all cases reported globally. has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple species and vectors. This review of malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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2016-12-28
2017-09-23
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  • Received : 01 Mar 2016
  • Accepted : 19 Aug 2016

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