1921
Volume 95 Number 6_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by , accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all cases reported globally. has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple species and vectors. This review of malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0163
2016-12-28
2019-05-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/95/6_Suppl/108.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0163&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2015. World Malaria Report 2014. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2015/en/. Accessed July 23, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  2. Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, 2012. Strategic Plan for Malaria Control in India 2012–2017: A Five-Year Strategic Plan. Available at: http://nvbdcp.gov.in/Doc/Strategic-Action-Plan-Malaria-2012-17-Co.pdf. Accessed July 23, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  3. Srivastava HC, Kant R, Bhatt RM, Sharma SK, Sharma VP, , 1995. Epidemiological observations on malaria in villages of Buhari PHC, Surat, Gujarat. Indian J Malariol 32: 140152. [Google Scholar]
  4. Adak T, Sharma VP, Orlov VS, , 1998. Studies on the Plasmodium vivax relapse pattern in Delhi, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 175179. [Google Scholar]
  5. Adak T, Valecha N, Sharma VP, , 2001. Plasmodium vivax polymorphism in a clinical drug trial. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8: 891894. [Google Scholar]
  6. Gogtay NJ, Desai S, Kamtekar KD, Kadam VS, Dalvi SS, Kshirsagar NA, , 1999. Efficacies of 5- and 14-day primaquine regimens in the prevention of relapses in Plasmodium vivax infections. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 93: 809812.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Rajgor DD, Gogtay NJ, Kadam VS, Kamtekar KD, Dalvi SS, Chogle AR, Aigal U, Bichile LS, Kain KC, Kshirsagar NA, , 2003. Efficacy of a 14-day primaquine regimen in preventing relapses in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria in Mumbai, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 438440.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Yadav RS, Ghosh SK, , 2002. Radical curative efficacy of five-day regimen of primaquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in India. J Parasitol 88: 10421044.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Sinha S, Dua VK, Sharma VP, , 1989. Efficacy of 5 day radical treatment of primaquine in Plasmodium vivax cases at the BHEL industrial complex, Hardwar (U.P.). Indian J Malariol 26: 8386. [Google Scholar]
  10. Dua VK, Sharma VP, , 2001. Plasmodium vivax relapses after 5 days of primaquine treatment, in some industrial complexes of India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95: 655659.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Singh N, Mishra AK, Sharma VP, , 1990. Radical treatment of vivax malaria in Madhya Pradesh, India. Indian J Malariol 27: 5556. [Google Scholar]
  12. Sharma RC, Gautam AS, , 1990. Studies on outbreak of malaria in Muliad village of Kheda district, Gujarat. Indian J Malariol 27: 157162. [Google Scholar]
  13. Srivastava HC, Sharma SK, Bhatt RM, Sharma VP, , 1996. Studies on Plasmodium vivax relapse pattern in Kheda district, Gujarat. Indian J Malariol 33: 173179. [Google Scholar]
  14. Prasad RN, Virk KJ, Sharma VP, , 1991. Relapse/reinfection patterns of Plasmodium vivax infection: a four year study. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 22: 499503. [Google Scholar]
  15. Roy M, Bouma MJ, Ionides EL, Dhiman RC, Pascual M, , 2013. The potential elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria by relapse treatment: insights from a transmission model and surveillance data from NW India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e1979.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. World Health Organization ROfS-EA, 2007. Anopheline Species Complexes in South and South-East Asia: SEARO Technical Publication No. 57. Available at: http://apps.searo.who.int/pds_docs/B2406.pdf. Accessed July 23, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  17. Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, 2012. Country Monitoring & Evaluation Framework in Malaria Control (NVBDCP). Available at: http://nvbdcp.gov.in/Round-9/M&EFramework.pdf. Accessed July 23, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  18. Pandey A, Gitte SV, , 2010. Adherence to malaria diagnostic guidelines in field area of Chattisgarh. Indian J Community Med 35: 520522.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Barua N, Pandav CS, , 2011. The allure of the private practitioner: is this the only alternative for the urban poor in India? Indian J Public Health 55: 107114.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Mishra N, Anvikar AR, Shah NK, Kamal VK, Sharma SK, Srivastava HC, Das MK, Pradhan K, Kumar H, Gupta YK, Gupta P, Dash AP, Valecha N, , 2011. Prescription practices and availability of artemisinin monotherapy in India: where do we stand? Malar J 10: 360.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Kamat V, , 2001. Private practitioners and their role in the resurgence of malaria in Mumbai (Bombay) and Navi Mumbai (New Bombay), India: serving the affected or aiding an epidemic? Soc Sci Med 52: 885909.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Srivastava HC, Yadav RS, Joshi H, Valecha N, Mallick PK, Prajapati SK, Dash AP, , 2008. Therapeutic responses of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum to chloroquine, in an area of western India where P. vivax predominates. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 102: 471480.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Singh RK, , 2000. Emergence of chloroquine-resistant vivax malaria in south Bihar (India). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94: 327.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Saravu K, Kumar R, Ashok H, Kundapura P, Kamath V, Kamath A, Mukhopadhyay C, , 2016. Therapeutic assessment of chloroquine-primaquine combined regimen in adult cohort of Plasmodium vivax malaria from primary care centres in southwestern India. PLoS One 11: e0157666.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Mishra N, Singh JP, Srivastava B, Arora U, Shah NK, Ghosh SK, Bhatt RM, Sharma SK, Das MK, Kumar A, Anvikar AR, Kaitholia K, Gupta R, Sonal GS, Dhariwal AC, Valecha N, , 2012. Monitoring antimalarial drug resistance in India via sentinel sites: outcomes and risk factors for treatment failure, 2009–2010. Bull World Health Organ 90: 895904.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Mishra N, Srivastava B, Bharti RS, Rana R, Kaitholia K, Anvikar AR, Das MK, Ghosh SK, Bhatt RM, Tyagi PK, Dev V, Phookan S, Wattal SL, Sonal GS, Dhariwal AC, Valecha N, , 2016. Monitoring the efficacy of antimalarial medicines in India via sentinel sites: outcomes and risk factors for treatment failure. J Vector Borne Dis 53: 168178. [Google Scholar]
  27. Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Directorate of General Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India, 2016. National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India (2016–2030). Available at: http://www.nvbdcp.gov.in/Doc/National-framework-for-malaria-elimination-in-India-2016%E2%80%932030.pdf. Accessed July 23, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  28. Bhasin M, , 2006. Genetics of castes and tribes of India: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and abnormal haemoglobins (HbS and HbE). Int J Hum Genet 6: 4972. [Google Scholar]
  29. Balgir RS, , 2010. Genetic diversity of hemoglobinopathies, G6PD deficiency, and ABO and Rhesus blood groups in two isolates of a primitive Kharia Tribe in Sundargarh District of northwestern Orissa, India. J Community Genet 1: 117123.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, 2013. National Drug Policy on Malaria. Available at: http://nvbdcp.gov.in/Doc/National-Drug-Policy-2013.pdf. Accessed July 23, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  31. Baird JK, , 2015. Point-of-care G6PD diagnostics for Plasmodium vivax malaria is a clinical and public health urgency. BMC Med 13: 296.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Director of Health Services (Malaria), 2011. Annual Report on Implementation of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) in Haryana State. Available at: http://haryanahealth.nic.in/userfiles/file/pdf/New%20Malaria%202013/Annual%20Report%20on%20implementation%20of%20NVBDCP%202011_15042013.pdf. Accessed July 23, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  33. Acharya A, Magisetty J, Chandra A, Chaithra B, Khanum T, Vijayan V, , 2013. Trend of malaria incidence in the state of Karnataka, India for 2001 to 2011. Archives of Applied Science Research 5: 104111. [Google Scholar]
  34. Hati AK, , 1997. Urban malaria vector biology. Indian J Med Res 106: 149163. [Google Scholar]
  35. Parizo J, Sturrock HJ, Dhiman RC, Greenhouse B, , 2016. Spatiotemporal analysis of malaria in urban Ahmedabad (Gujarat), India: identification of hot spots and risk factors for targeted intervention. Am J Trop Med Hyg 95: 595603.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  36. Ghosh SK, Tiwari S, Ojha VP, , 2012. A renewed way of malaria control in Karnataka, south India. Front Physiol 3: 194.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  37. Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, 2012. Urban Malaria Scheme and Other Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. Available at: http://www.nvbdcp.gov.in/Doc/Proceeding%20of%20UMS%20Report%209-7-12.pdf. Accessed July 23, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  38. Joshi U, Solanki A, Oza U, Bhatt R, Vyas S, Patel P, Rana A, Dabhi L, , 2013. Situation of P. vivax malaria in Ahmedabad city: a study in purview of national guidelines. Ann Trop Med Public Health 6: 227231.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. Srivastava HC, Pant C, Sreehari U, Yadav RS, , 2011. Malaria in seasonal migrant population in southern Gujurat, India. Trop Biomed 28: 638645. [Google Scholar]
  40. Tiwari S, Kumar Ghosh S, Sathyanarayan T, Nanda N, Uragayala S, Valecha N, , 2015. Malaria outbreaks in villages in North Karnataka, India, and role of sibling species of Anopheles culicifacies complex. Health 7: 946954.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  41. Tripathy A, Samanta L, Das S, Parida SK, Marai N, Hazra RK, Kar SK, Mahapatra N, , 2010. Distribution of sibling species of Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. and their vectorial capacity in eight different malaria endemic districts of Orissa, India. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 105: 981987.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. Kumari S, Parida SK, Marai N, Tripathy A, Hazra RK, Kar SK, Mahapatra N, , 2009. Vectorial role of anopheles subpictus Grassi and anopheles culicifacies Giles in Angul District, Orissa, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40: 713719. [Google Scholar]
  43. Mahapatra N, Marai N, Dhal K, Nayak R, Panigrahi B, Mallick G, Ranjit M, Kar S, Kerketta A, , 2012. Malaria outbreak in a non endemic tribal block of Balasore district, Orissa, India during summer season. Trop Biomed 29: 277285. [Google Scholar]
  44. Chaudhari KS, Uttarwar SP, Tambe NN, Sharma RS, Takalkar AA, , 2016. Role of serum lactate and malarial retinopathy in prognosis and outcome of falciparum and vivax cerebral malaria: a prospective cohort study in adult Assamese tribes. J Glob Infect Dis 8: 6167.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  45. Chauhan V, Raina SK, Thakur S, , 2016. State of the globe: the resurgence of vivax. J Glob Infect Dis 8: 5960.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  46. Gupta A, Dhume V, Puranik GV, Kavishwar V, , 2015. Autopsy study of febrile deaths during monsoon at a tertiary care institute in India: is malaria still a challenge? Niger Med J 56: 611.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  47. Gupta P, Sharma R, Chandra J, Kumar V, Singh R, Pande V, Singh V, , 2016. Clinical manifestations and molecular mechanisms in the changing paradigm of vivax malaria in India. Infect Genet Evol 39: 317324.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  48. Hupalo DN, Luo Z, Melnikov A, Sutton PL, Rogov P, Escalante A, Vallejo AF, Herrera S, Arevalo-Herrera M, Fan Q, Wang Y, Cui L, Lucas CM, Durand S, Sanchez JF, Baldeviano GC, Lescano AG, Laman M, Barnadas C, Barry A, Mueller I, Kazura JW, Eapen A, Kanagaraj D, Valecha N, Ferreira MU, Roobsoong W, Nguitragool W, Sattabonkot J, Gamboa D, Kosek M, Vinetz JM, Gonzalez-Ceron L, Birren BW, Neafsey DE, Carlton JM, , 2016. Population genomics studies identify signatures of global dispersal and drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax . Nat Genet 48: 953958.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  49. Wassmer SC, Taylor TE, Rathod PK, Mishra SK, Mohanty S, Arevalo-Herrera M, Duraisingh MT, Smith JD, , 2015. Investigating the pathogenesis of severe malaria: a multidisciplinary and cross-geographical approach. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93: 4256.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  50. Dhingra N, Jha P, Sharma VP, Cohen AA, Jotkar RM, Rodriguez PS, Bassani DG, Suraweera W, Laxminarayan R, Peto R, Million Death Study Collaborators; , 2010. Adult and child malaria mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey. Lancet 376: 17681774.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  51. Basnyat B, , 2011. Malaria-attributed death rates in India. Lancet 377: 993; author reply 994–995.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  52. Deonarine A, , 2011. Malaria-attributed death rates in India. Lancet 377: 993994; author reply 994–995.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  53. Kumar A, Dua VK, Rathod PK, , 2011. Malaria-attributed death rates in India. Lancet 377: 991992; author reply 994–995.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  54. Shah NK, Dhariwal AC, Sonal GS, Gunasekar A, Dye C, Cibulskis R, , 2011. Malaria-attributed death rates in India. Lancet 377: 991; author reply 994–995.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  55. Valecha N, Staedke S, Filler S, Mpimbaza A, Greenwood B, Chandramohan D, , 2011. Malaria-attributed death rates in India. Lancet 377: 992993; author reply 994–995.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0163
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0163
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 01 Mar 2016
  • Accepted : 19 Aug 2016
  • Published online : 28 Dec 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error