1921
Volume 95, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been postulated to alter the natural history of cholera, including increased susceptibility to infection, severity of illness, and chronic carriage of . Haiti has a generalized HIV epidemic with an adult HIV prevalence of 1.9% and recently suffered a cholera epidemic. We conducted a prospective study at the cholera treatment center (CTC) of GHESKIO in Haiti to characterize the coinfection. Adults admitted at the CTC for acute diarrhea were invited to participate in the study. Vital signs, frequency, and volume of stools and/or vomiting were monitored, and single-dose doxycycline was administered. After counseling, participants were screened for HIV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for cholera by culture. Of 729 adults admitted to the CTC, 99 (13.6%) had HIV infection, and 457 (63%) had culture-confirmed cholera. HIV prevalence was three times higher in patients without cholera (23%, 63/272) than in those with culture-confirmed cholera (7.9%, 36/457). HIV prevalence in patients with culture-confirmed cholera (7.9%) was four times higher than the adult prevalence in Port-au-Prince (1.9%). Of the 36 HIV-infected patients with cholera, 25 (69%) had moderate/severe dehydration versus 302/421 (72%) in the HIV negative. Of 30 HIV-infected patients with weekly stool cultures performed after discharge, 29 (97%) were negative at week 1. Of 50 HIV-negative patients with weekly stool cultures, 49 (98%) were negative at week 1. In countries with endemic HIV infection, clinicians should consider screening patients presenting with suspected cholera for HIV coinfection.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0105
2016-11-02
2017-11-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/95/5/999.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0105&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Mintz ED, Tauxe RV, , 2013. Cholera in Africa: a closer look and a time for action. J Infect Dis 208 (Suppl 1): S4S7.[Crossref]
  2. Luquero FJ, Grout L, Ciglenecki I, Sakoba K, Traore B, Heile M, Dialo AA, Itama C, Serafini M, Legros D, Grais RF, , 2013. First outbreak response using an oral cholera vaccine in Africa: vaccine coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events, Guinea, 2012. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2465.[Crossref]
  3. Djomassi LD, Gessner BD, Andze GO, Mballa GA, , 2013. National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Cameroon. J Infect Dis 208 (Suppl 1): S92S97.[Crossref]
  4. Jenson D, Szabo V, Duke FHI Haiti Humanities Laboratory Student Research Team, , 2011. Cholera in Haiti and other Caribbean regions, 19th century. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 21302135.[Crossref]
  5. Ivers LC, Walton DA, , 2012. The “first” case of cholera in Haiti: lessons for global health. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 3638.[Crossref]
  6. Weil AA, Ivers LC, Harris JB, , 2012. Cholera: lessons from Haiti and beyond. Curr Infect Dis Rep 14: 18.[Crossref]
  7. UNAIDS, 2013. September 2013 Core Epidemiology Slides: Global Summary of the AIDS Epidemic 2012. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2013/gr2013/201309_epi_core_en.pdf. Accessed September 2015.
  8. UNAIDS, 2013. Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2013. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2013/gr2013/UNAIDS_Global_Report_2013_en.pdf. Accessed November 2015.
  9. Cayemittes M, Busangu MF, Bizimana JDD, Cayemittes V, Charles E, , 2012. Enquête Mortalité, Morbidité et Utilisation des Services HAÏTI 2012. Available at: http://mspp.gouv.ht/site/downloads/EMMUSVdocumentfinal.pdf. Accessed November 2015.
  10. Ministère de la Santè Publique et de la Population, 2014. Rapport Journalier du MSPP. Available at: http://mspp.gouv.ht/site/downloads/Rapport%20Web_16.03_Avec_Courbes_Departementales.pdf. Accessed November 2015.
  11. Harris JB, LaRocque RC, Qadri F, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB, , 2012. Cholera. Lancet 379: 24662476.[Crossref]
  12. Sack DA, Sack RB, Nair GB, Siddique A, , 2004. Cholera. Lancet 363: 223233.[Crossref]
  13. von Seidlein L, Wang XY, Macuamule A, Mondlane C, Puri M, Hendriksen I, Deen JL, Chaignat CL, Clemens JD, Ansaruzzaman M, Barreto A, Songane FF, Lucas M, , 2008. Is HIV infection associated with an increased risk for cholera? Findings from a case-control study in Mozambique. Trop Med Int Health 13: 683688.[Crossref]
  14. Rey J, Milleliri JM, Soares JL, Boutin JP, Desfontaine M, Merouze F, Van de Perre P, , 1995. HIV seropositivity and cholera in refugee children from Rwanda. AIDS 9: 12031204.[Crossref]
  15. Utsalo SJ, Eko FO, Umoh F, Asindi AA, , 1999. Faecal excretion of Vibrio cholerae during convalescence of cholera patients in Calabar, Nigeria. Eur J Epidemiol 15: 379381.[Crossref]
  16. World Health Organization, 2015. Cholera. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs107/en/index.html. Accessed September 2015.
  17. World Health Organization, 2004. First Steps for Managing an Outbreak of Acute Diarrhoea. Available at: http://www.who.int/topics/cholera/publications/en/first_steps.pdf. Accessed September 2015
  18. Baron EJ, Miller JM, Weinstein MP, Richter SS, Gilligan PH, Thomson RB, Jr Bourbeau P, Carroll KC, Kehl SC, Dunne WM, Robinson-Dunn B, Schwartzman JD, Chapin KC, Snyder JW, Forbes BA, Patel R, Rosenblatt JE, Pritt BS, , 2013. A guide to utilization of the microbiology laboratory for diagnosis of infectious diseases: 2013 recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). Clin Infect Dis 57: e22e121.[Crossref]
  19. Mushayabasa S, Bhunu CP, , 2012. Is HIV infection associated with an increased risk for cholera? Insights from a mathematical model. Biosystems 109: 203213.[Crossref]
  20. Valcin CL, Severe K, Riche CT, Anglade BS, Moise CG, Woodworth M, Charles M, Li Z, Joseph P, Pape JW, Wright PF, , 2013. Predictors of disease severity in patients admitted to a cholera treatment center in urban Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 625632.[Crossref]
  21. Charles M, Delva GG, Boutin J, Severe K, Peck M, Mabou MM, Wright PF, Pape JW, , 2014. Importance of cholera and other etiologies of acute diarrhea in post-earthquake Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 511517.[Crossref]
  22. Mehandru S, Poles MA, Tenner-Racz K, Horotwitz A, Hurley A, Hogan C, Boden D, Racz P, Markowitz M, , 2004. Primary HIV-1 infection is associated with preferential depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes from effector sites in the gastrointestinal tract. J Exp Med 200: 761770.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0105
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0105
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 11 Feb 2016
  • Accepted : 11 Jul 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error