Volume 95, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We evaluated the efficacy of chloroquine and primaquine on uncomplicated malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Brazil, in 2014. Patients ≥ 5 years of age with either fever or history of fever, and laboratory-confirmed monoinfection received chloroquine (total dose = 25 mg/kg) and primaquine (total dose = 3.5 mg/kg), and were followed up for 168 days (24 weeks). We used microsatellite genotyping to differentiate recurrent infections caused by heterologous parasites from those caused by homologous ones. No new episode occurred by Day 28 among 119 enrolled patients, leading to Day 28, with adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 96.7–100%). Twenty-eight episodes occurred by Day 168, with uncorrected ACPR of 69.9% (95% CI = 59.5–79.0%). Fifteen of these episodes were caused by either homologous haplotypes or haplotypes that could not be determined. Excluding the 13 recurrent episodes caused by heterologous parasites, Day 168 microsatellite-corrected ACPR was estimated at 81.2% (95% CI = 71.0–89.1%). Chloroquine and primaquine remain efficacious to treat acute uncomplicated infection, but moderate recurrence rates were observed within 24 weeks of follow-up.


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  • Received : 01 Feb 2016
  • Accepted : 12 Jul 2016
  • Published online : 02 Nov 2016

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