1921
Volume 95, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

hyperinfection syndrome and disseminated strongyloidiasis frequently occur in immunocompromised persons and can lead to high complication and mortality rates. Thus, detection of in those patients is crucial. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of strongyloidiasis and compare the detection rates of different strongyloidiasis detection methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 135 adults with various immunocompromising conditions (corticosteroid usage, chemotherapy, hematologic malignancies, organ transplants, use of immunosuppressive agents, and symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection) in Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. All patients were asked to undergo serology testing for IgG by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 3 days of stool collection for use in a simple smear along with formalin–ether concentration and agar plate techniques. Prevalence rates of strongyloidiasis were 5% by stool concentration technique, 5.4% by IgG-ELISA, and 6.7% by agar plate culture. Three of the eight strongyloidiasis cases in this study had hyperinfection syndrome. The tested risk factors of age, sex, occupation, and immunocompromising condition were not associated with infestation. Serology was only 42.9% sensitive (positive predictive value), but it was 96.3% specific (negative predictive value). In conclusion, prevalence rates of strongyloidiasis in this study were 5–7%. Although agar plate culture was the most sensitive technique, the other diagnostic methods might be alternatively used.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0068
2016-08-03
2017-11-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/95/2/401.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0068&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Keiser PB, Nutman TB, , 2004. Strongyloides stercoralis in the immunocompromised population. Clin Microbiol Rev 17: 208217.[Crossref]
  2. Siddiqui AA, Berk SL, , 2001. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Clin Infect Dis 33: 10401047.[Crossref]
  3. Requena-Mendez A, Chiodini P, Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D, Gotuzzo E, Munoz J, , 2013. The laboratory diagnosis and follow up of strongyloidiasis: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2002.[Crossref]
  4. Sato Y, Kobayashi J, Toma H, Shiroma Y, , 1995. Efficacy of stool examination for detection of Strongyloides infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53: 248250.
  5. Biggs BA, Caruana S, Mihrshahi S, Jolley D, Leydon J, Chea L, Nuon S, , 2009. Management of chronic strongyloidiasis in immigrants and refugees: is serologic testing useful? Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 788791.
  6. Loutfy MR, Wilson M, Keystone JS, Kain KC, , 2002. Serology and eosinophil count in the diagnosis and management of strongyloidiasis in a non-endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 749752.
  7. Tomblyn M, Chiller T, Einsele H, Gress R, Sepkowitz K, Storek J, Wingard JR, Young JA, Boeckh MJ, , 2009. Guidelines for preventing infectious complications among hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: a global perspective. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 15: 11431238.[Crossref]
  8. Avery RK, Ljungman P, , 2001. Prophylactic measures in the solid-organ recipient before transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 33: S15S21.[Crossref]
  9. Schaffel R, Nucci M, Carvalho E, Braga M, Almeida L, Portugal R, Pulcheri W, , 2001. The value of an immunoenzymatic test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in patients immunosuppressed by hematologic malignancies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 346350.
  10. Dekumyoy P, Somtana K, Jantanawiwat P, Nuamtanong S, Sa-nguankiat S, Nuchfaong S, Janyapoon K, Chindanond D, , 2002. Improved antigens for IgG-ELISA diagnosis of strongyloidiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33 (Suppl 3): 5359.
  11. Schar F, Trostdorf U, Giardina F, Khieu V, Muth S, Marti H, Vounatsou P, Odermatt P, , 2013. Strongyloides stercoralis: global distribution and risk factors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2288.[Crossref]
  12. Sithithaworn P, Srisawangwong T, Tesana S, Daenseekaew W, Sithithaworn J, Fujimaki Y, Ando K, , 2003. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in north-east Thailand: application of the agar plate culture technique compared with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 398402.[Crossref]
  13. Nontasut P, Muennoo C, Sa-nguankiat S, Fongsri S, Vichit A, , 2005. Prevalence of Strongyloides in northern Thailand and treatment with ivermectin vs. albendazole. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36: 442444.
  14. Salazar SA, Gutierrez C, Berk SL, , 1995. Value of the agar plate method for the diagnosis of intestinal strongyloidiasis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 23: 141145.[Crossref]
  15. Khieu V, Schar F, Marti H, Sayasone S, Duong S, Muth S, Odermatt P, , 2013. Diagnosis, treatment and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in schoolchildren in Cambodia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2035.[Crossref]
  16. Hirata T, Nakamura H, Kinjo N, Hokama A, Kinjo F, Yamane N, Fujita J, , 2007. Increased detection rate of Strongyloides stercoralis by repeated stool examinations using the agar plate culture method. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 683684.
  17. Steinmann P, Zhou XN, Du ZW, Jiang JY, Wang LB, Wang XZ, Li LH, Marti H, Utzinger J, , 2007. Occurrence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Yunnan Province, China, and comparison of diagnostic methods. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 1: e75.[Crossref]
  18. Marques CC, da Penha Zago-Gomes M, Goncalves CS, Pereira FE, , 2010. Alcoholism and Strongyloides stercoralis: daily ethanol ingestion has a positive correlation with the frequency of Strongyloides larvae in the stools. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e717.[Crossref]
  19. Siegel MO, Simon GL, , 2012. Is human immunodeficiency virus infection a risk factor for Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection and dissemination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1581.[Crossref]
  20. Pinlaor S, Mootsikapun P, Pinlaor P, Pipitgool V, Tuangnadee R, , 2005. Detection of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites and liver flukes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36: 841845.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0068
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0068
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 29 Jan 2016
  • Accepted : 02 May 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error