1921
Volume 95, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

An unprecedented dengue outbreak involving more than 15,000 infections, including 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases and 20 fatalities, occurred in Taiwan in 2014. The median age of the DHF cases was 71 years (range: 4–92 years) and most of them ( = 100, 73.5%) had comorbidities, of which the majority were hypertension (56%) and diabetes mellitus (DM; 27%). Only approximately half of the DHF cases (59/136) were classified as severe dengue, based on the 2009 WHO-revised dengue classification. The fatality rate for this DHF outbreak was 14.7%. DM (odds ratio [OR] = 3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22–10.63) and presentation with severe plasma leakage (OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.76–23.63) were independent risk factors for fatality.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0905
2016-08-03
2017-09-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/95/2/322.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0905&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. WHO, 2009. Dengue: Guideline for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241547871_eng.pdf. Accessed November 4, 2015.
  2. WHO, Media Centre, Updated April 2016. Dengue and Severe Dengue. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/. Accessed May 27, 2016.
  3. Moraes GH, de Fatima Duarte E, Duarte EC, , 2013. Determinants of mortality from severe dengue in Brazil: a population-based case-control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 670676.[Crossref]
  4. Ooi EE, Goh KT, Gubler DJ, , 2006. Dengue prevention and 35 years of vector control in Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 887893.[Crossref]
  5. Lin CH, Schiøler KL, Jepsen MR, Ho CK, Li SH, Konradsen F, , 2012. Dengue outbreaks in high-income area, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, 2003–2009. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 16031611.[Crossref]
  6. Lin CC, Huang YH, Shu PY, Wu HS, Lin YS, Yeh TM, Liu HS, Liu CC, Lei HY, , 2010. Characteristic of dengue disease in Taiwan: 2002–2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 731739.[Crossref]
  7. Liu YT, Fang CT, Yen JJ, , 2015. Risk factors for dengue hemorrhagic fever in Taiwan, 2003–2013. Taiwan J Public Health 34: 437445.
  8. Wang SF, Wang WH, Chang K, Chen YH, Tseng SP, Yen CH, Wu DC, Chen YM, , 2016. Severe dengue fever outbreak in Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 94: 193197.[Crossref]
  9. McKerr C, Lo YC, Edeghere O, Bracebridge S, , 2015. Evaluation of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for dengue fever in Taiwan, 2010–2012. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003639.[Crossref]
  10. Huang JH, Liao TL, Chang SF, Su CL, Chien LJ, Kuo YC, Yang CF, Lin CC, Shu PY, , 2007. Laboratory-based dengue surveillance in Taiwan, 2005: a molecular epidemiologic study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 903909.
  11. Pei-Yun Shu, Chang SF, Kuo YC, Yueh YY, Chien LJ, Sue CL, Lin TH, Huang JH, , 2003. Development of group- and serotype-specific one-step SYBR green I-based real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for dengue virus. J Clin Microbiol 41: 24082416.[Crossref]
  12. Shu PY, Yang CF, Kao JF, Su CL, Chang SF, Lin CC, Yang WC, Shih H, Yang SY, Wu PF, Wu HS, Huang JH, , 2009. Application of the dengue virus NS1 antigen rapid test for on-site detection of imported dengue cases at airports. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16: 589591.[Crossref]
  13. Shu PY, Chen LK, Chang SF, Yueh YY, Chow L, Chien LJ, Chin C, Lin TH, Huang JH, , 2003. Comparison of capture immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nonstructural protein NS1 serotype-specific IgG ELISA for differentiation of primary and secondary dengue virus infections. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10: 622630.
  14. WHO, 1997. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, 2nd edition. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/dengue/Denguepublication/en/. Accessed November 4, 2015.
  15. Department of Household Registration, Ministry of the Interior Taiwan, 2014. Midyear Population by Sex and 5-Year Age Group. Available at: http://www.ris.gov.tw/web/ris3-english/history. Accessed April 28, 2016.
  16. Lee IK, Liu JW, Yang KD, , 2009. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes in adults experiencing dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated with acute renal failure. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 651655.
  17. Leo YS, Thein TL, Fisher DA, Low JG, Oh HM, Narayanan RL, Gan VC, Lee VJ, Lye DC, , 2011. Confirmed adult dengue deaths in Singapore: 5-year multi-center retrospective study. BMC Infect Dis 11: 123.[Crossref]
  18. Pang J, Thein TL, Leo YS, Lye DC, , 2014. Early clinical and laboratory risk factors of intensive care unit requirement during 2004–2008 dengue epidemics in Singapore: a matched case-control study. BMC Infect Dis 14: 649.[Crossref]
  19. Thanachartwet V, Oer-Areemitr N, Chamnanchanunt S, Sahassananda D, Jittmittraphap A, Suwannakudt P, Desakorn V, Wattanathum A, , 2015. Identification of clinical factors associated with severe dengue among Thai adults: a prospective study. BMC Infect Dis 15: 420.[Crossref]
  20. Garcia-Rivera EJ, Rigau-Perez JG, , 2003. Dengue severity in the elderly in Puerto Rico. Rev Panam Salud Publica 13: 362368.[Crossref]
  21. Lloyd-Sherlock P, , 2000. Population ageing in developed and developing regions: implications for health policy. Soc Sci Med 51: 887895.[Crossref]
  22. Hsu HY, Lai SK, Kuo CH, Wu CW, Liu DP, , 2013. An epidemiological analysis of dengue hemorrhagic fever cases in Taiwan from 2003 to 2011. Taiwan Epidemiology Bulletin 29: 319328.
  23. Lee IK, Liu JW, Yang KD, , 2008. Clinical and laboratory characteristics and risk factors for fatality in elderly patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 149153.
  24. Lee IK, Liu JW, Yang KD, , 2012. Fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever in adults: emphasizing the evolutionary pre-fatal clinical and laboratory manifestations. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1532.[Crossref]
  25. Lee MS, Hwang KP, Chen TC, Lu PL, Chen TP, , 2006. Clinical characteristics of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a medical center of southern Taiwan during the 2002 epidemic. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 39: 121129.
  26. Guzman MG, Harris E, , 2015. Dengue. Lancet 385: 453465.[Crossref]
  27. Halstead SB, , 2003. Neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue viruses. Adv Virus Res 60: 421467.[Crossref]
  28. Pang J, Salim A, Lee VJ, Hibberd ML, Chia KS, Leo YS, Lye DC, , 2012. Diabetes with hypertension as risk factors for adult dengue hemorrhagic fever in a predominantly dengue serotype 2 epidemic: a case control study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1641.[Crossref]
  29. Rowe EK, Leo YS, Wong JG, Thein TL, Gan VC, Lee LK, Lye DC, , 2014. Challenges in dengue fever in the elderly: atypical presentation and risk of severe dengue and hospital-acquired infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2777.[Crossref]
  30. Chaturvedi UC, Agarwal R, Elbishbishi EA, Mustafa AS, , 2000. Cytokine cascade in dengue hemorrhagic fever: implications for pathogenesis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 28: 183188.[Crossref]
  31. Sierra B, Perez AB, Vogt K, Garcia G, Schmolke K, Aguirre E, Alvarez M, Kern F, Kourí G, Volk HD, Guzman MG, , 2010. Secondary heterologous dengue infection risk: disequilibrium between immune regulation and inflammation? Cell Immunol 262: 134140.[Crossref]
  32. Jiang YD, Chang CH, Tai TY, Chen JF, Chuang LM, , 2012. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan: analysis of the 2000–2009 Nationwide Health Insurance database. J Formos Med Assoc 111: 599604.[Crossref]
  33. Kirkman MS, Briscoe VJ, Clark N, Florez H, Haas LB, Halter JB, Huang ES, Korytkowski MT, Munshi MN, Odegard PS, Pratley RE, Swift CS, , 2012. Diabetes in older adults. Diabetes Care 35: 26502664.[Crossref]
  34. Rothman AL, , 2011. Immunity to dengue virus: a tale of original antigenic sin and tropical cytokine storms. Nat Rev Immunol 11: 532543.[Crossref]
  35. Shresta S, Sharar KL, Prigozhin DM, Beatty PR, Harris E, , 2006. Murine model for dengue virus-induced lethal disease with increased vascular permeability. J Virol 80: 1020810217.[Crossref]
  36. Guzman MG, Alvarez M, Halstead SB, , 2013. Secondary infection as a risk factor for dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome: an historical perspective and role of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. Arch Virol 158: 14451459.[Crossref]
  37. Thomas L, Verlaeten O, Cabié A, Kaidomar S, Moravie V, Martial J, Najioullah F, Plumelle Y, Fonteau C, Dussart P, Césaire R, , 2008. Influence of the dengue serotype, previous dengue infection, and plasma viral load on clinical presentation and outcome during a dengue-2 and dengue-4 co-epidemic. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 990998.
  38. Horstick O, Jaenisch T, Martinez E, Kroeger A, See LL, Farrar J, Ranzinger SR, , 2014. Comparing the usefulness of the 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue case classification: a systematic literature review. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 621634.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0905
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0905
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 17 Dec 2015
  • Accepted : 11 May 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error