Volume 95, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for about 1 million deaths worldwide annually. This study was to determine the prevalence, distribution of HBV, and factors associated with infection in an apparently healthy population in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study among the general population was conducted employing a multistage sampling technique. Data on demographic, social, and behavioral indicators were collected using questionnaires and blood samples tested for HBV seromarkers. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were done. Prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 12.2% (confidence interval [CI] = 10.3–14.5). Of the participants, more than half, 527 (54.6%), had evidence of previous exposure to HBV, while 306 (31.7%) showed no serologic evidence of infection or vaccination. Only 76 (7.9%) participants showed serologic evidence of immunity to HBV through vaccination. Factors associated with testing positive for HBV infection were dental procedure outside the health facility (odds ratios [OR] = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.52–7.70), local circumcision (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.17–2.57), and uvulectomy (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.06–2.57). With logistic regression, only dental procedure outside the health facility (adjusted OR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.38–7.97) remained significant. This first national survey on seroprevalence of hepatitis B describes the epidemiology and high prevalence of HBV infection in Nigeria and highlights the need for improved vaccination against HBV.


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  • Received : 02 Dec 2015
  • Accepted : 31 May 2016
  • Published online : 05 Oct 2016

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