Volume 94, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat tuberculosis (TB). Although vitamin D may have antimycobacterial effects, it is unknown whether low vitamin D status confers a risk for active TB in African children. This case–control study assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in children with and without active TB in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 80 children under 2 years old with and without active TB, seen at hospitals and clinics in the greater Gaborone area between September 2010 and November 2012, were enrolled. Of these, 39 cases did not differ from the 41 controls in median 25(OH)D levels ( = 0.84). The 25(OH)D was < 20 ng/mL in 8/39 (21%) cases and 7/41 (17%) controls ( = 0.69, χ). Univariate analyses of subject clinical characteristics (other than 25(OH)D levels) showed that any degree of weight loss was associated with a diagnosis of TB ( = 0.047). Other clinical characteristics, including age ( = 0.08) or weight below third percentile ( = 0.58), showed no association with TB. There was no significant difference in vitamin D status between children under 2 years old with and without active TB. Lower vitamin D status did not appear to be a risk factor for TB in this small Gaborone cohort.


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  • Received : 30 Nov 2015
  • Accepted : 05 Feb 2016
  • Published online : 04 May 2016

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