Volume 95, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Malaria constitutes a major public health problem in Zimbabwe, particularly in the north and east bordering Zambia and Mozambique. In Manicaland Province in eastern Zimbabwe, malaria transmission is seasonal and unstable. Over the past decade, Manicaland Province has reported increased malaria transmission due to limited funding, drug resistance and insecticide resistance. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors at the individual and household levels to better understand the epidemiology of malaria and guide malaria control strategies in eastern Zimbabwe. Between October 2012 and September 2014, individual demographic data and household characteristics were collected from cross-sectional surveys of 1,116 individuals residing in 316 households in Mutasa District, one of the worst affected districts. Factors associated with malaria, measured by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), were identified through multilevel logistic regression models. A total of 74 participants were RDT positive. Sleeping under a bed net had a protective effect against malaria despite pyrethroid resistance in the mosquito vector. Multivariate analysis showed that malaria risk was higher among individuals younger than 25 years, residing in households located at a lower household density and in closer proximity to the Mozambique border. The risk factors identified need to be considered in targeting malaria control interventions to reduce host–vector interactions.


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  • Received : 23 Nov 2015
  • Accepted : 31 Jan 2016
  • Published online : 06 Jul 2016

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