Volume 95, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Of 49 workers at a Djiboutian abattoir, eight (16%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9–29) were seropositive against spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), two (4%, 95% CI: 1–14) against typhus group rickettsiae, and three (6%, 95% CI: 2–17) against orientiae. One worker (9%, 95% CI: 2–38) seroconverted against orientiae during the study period. This is the first evidence of orientiae exposure in the Horn of Africa. SFGR were also identified by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 189 (11%, 95% CI: 8–15) tick pools from 26 of 72 (36%) cattle. Twenty-five (8%, 95% CI: 6–12) tick pools were positive for , the causative agent of African tick-bite fever. Health-care providers in Djibouti should be aware of the possibility of rickettsiae infections among patients, although further research is needed to determine the impact of these infections in the country.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Gillespie JJ, Beier MS, Rahman MS, Ammerman NC, Shallom JM, Purkayastha A, Sobral BS, Azad AF, , 2007. Plasmids and rickettsial evolution: insight from Rickettsia felis . PLoS One 2: 266.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Tamura A, Ohashi N, Urakami H, Miyamura S, , 1995. Classification of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in a new genus, Orientia gen. nov., as Orientia tsutsugamushi comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45: 589591.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Ghorbani R, Ghorbani A, Jain M, Walker D, , 1997. A case of scrub typhus probably acquired in Africa. Clin Infect Dis 25: 14731474.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Izzard L, Fuller A, Blacksell SD, Paris DH, Richards AL, Aukkanit N, Nguyen C, Jiang J, Fenwick S, Day NP, , 2010. Isolation of a novel Orientia species (O. chuto sp. nov.) from a patient infected in Dubai. J Clin Microbiol 48: 44044409.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Balcells ME, Rabagliati R, García P, Poggi H, Oddó D, Concha M, Abarca K, Jiang J, Kelly DJ, Richards AL, , 2011. Endemic scrub typhus–like illness, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 16591663.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Jiang JMK, May LA, Beecham HJ, Wilkinson R, Ching W-M, Richards AL, , 2003. Laboratory diagnosis of two scrub typhus outbreaks at Camp Fuji, Japan in 2000 and 2001 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, rapid flow assay, and western blot assay using outer membrane 56 kDa recombinant proteins. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 6066. [Google Scholar]
  7. Thiga J, Mutai B, Eyako W, Ng'ang'a Z, Jiang J, Richards A, Waitumbi J, , 2015. High seroprevalence of antibodies against spotted fever and scrub typhus bacteria in patients with febrile illness, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 688691.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Crowder C, Rounds M, Phillipson C, Picuri J, Matthews H, Halverson J, Schutzer S, Ecker D, Eshoo M, , 2010. Extraction of total nucleic acids from ticks for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens. J Med Entomol 47: 8994.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Jiang J, Maina AN, Knobel DL, Cleaveland S, Laudisoit A, Wamburu K, Ogola E, Parola P, Breiman RF, Njenga MK, , 2013. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, Asembo, Kenya. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 13: 550558.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Maina AN, Knobel DL, Jiang J, Halliday J, Feikin DR, Cleaveland S, , 2012. Rickettsia felis infection in febrile patients, western Kenya, 2007–2010. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 328331.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Biggerstaff BJ, , 2009. PooledInfRate, Version 4.0: A Microsoft® Office Excel© Add-In to Compute Prevalence Estimates from Pooled Samples. Fort Collins, CO: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [Google Scholar]
  12. Gray G, Rodier G, Matras-Maslin V, Honein M, Ismail E, Botros B, Soliman A, Merrell B, Want S, Grayston J, , 1995. Serologic evidence of respiratory and rickettsial infections among Somali refugees. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 349353. [Google Scholar]
  13. Prabhu M, Nicholson WL, Roche AJ, Kersh GJ, Fitzpatrick KA, Oliver LD, Massung RF, Morrissey AB, Bartlett JA, Onyango JJ, , 2011. Q fever, spotted fever group, and typhus group rickettsioses among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania. Clin Infect Dis 53: e8e15.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Giroud P, Jadin J, , 1951. Presence des anticorps vis-a-vis de Rickettsia orientalis chez les indigenes et des asiatiques vivant au Ruanda-urundi (Congo Belge). Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 44: 5051. [Google Scholar]
  15. Osuga K, Kimura M, Goto H, Shimada K, Suto T, , 1991. A case of tsutsugamushi disease probably contracted in Africa. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 10: 9596.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Parola P, Inokuma H, Camicas J, Brouqui P, Raoult D, , 2001. Detection and identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae and ehrlichiae in African ticks. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 10141017.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Jensenius M, Fournier P-E, Kelly P, Myrvang B, Raoult D, , 2003. African tick bite fever. Lancet Infect Dis 3: 557564.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Parola P, , 2013. Update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach. Clin Microbiol Rev 26: 657702.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Eremeeva M, Balayeva N, Roux V, Ignatovich V, Kotsinjan M, Raoult D, , 1995. Genomic and proteinic characterization of strain S, a Rickettsia isolated from Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in Armenia. J Clin Microbiol 33: 27382744. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 24 Oct 2015
  • Accepted : 15 Apr 2016
  • Published online : 03 Aug 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error