Volume 94, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Serological markers, combined with spatial analysis, offer a comparatively more sensitive means by which to measure and detect foci of malaria transmission in highland areas than traditional malariometric indicators. parasite prevalence, seroprevalence, and seroconversion rate to merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) were measured in a cross-sectional survey to determine differences in transmission between altitudinal strata. Clusters of parasite prevalence and high antibody responses to MSP-1 were detected and compared. Results show that prevalence and seroprevalence generally decreased with increasing altitude. However, transmission was heterogeneous with hotspots of prevalence and/or seroprevalence detected in both highland and highland fringe altitudes, including a serological hotspot at 2,200 m. Results demonstrate that seroprevalence can be used as an additional tool to identify hotspots of malaria transmission that might be difficult to detect using traditional cross-sectional parasite surveys or through vector studies. Our study findings identify ways in which malaria prevention and control can be more effectively targeted in highland or low transmission areas via serological measures. These tools will become increasingly important for countries with an elimination agenda and/or where malaria transmission is becoming patchy and focal, but receptivity to malaria transmission remains high.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 09 Sep 2015
  • Accepted : 03 Mar 2016
  • Published online : 01 Jun 2016

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