1921
Volume 95, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

In August 2012, laboratory tests confirmed a mixed outbreak of epidemic typhus fever and trench fever in a male youth rehabilitation center in western Rwanda. Seventy-six suspected cases and 118 controls were enrolled into an unmatched case-control study to identify risk factors for symptomatic illness during the outbreak. A suspected case was fever or history of fever, from April 2012, in a resident of the rehabilitation center. In total, 199 suspected cases from a population of 1,910 male youth (attack rate = 10.4%) with seven deaths (case fatality rate = 3.5%) were reported. After multivariate analysis, history of seeing lice in clothing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1–5.8), delayed (≥ 2 days) washing of clothing (aOR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.6–9.6), and delayed (≥ 1 month) washing of beddings (aOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.0–11) were associated with illness, whereas having stayed in the rehabilitation camp for ≥ 6 months was protective (aOR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.10–0.40). Stronger surveillance and improvements in hygiene could prevent future outbreaks.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0643
2016-08-03
2020-09-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/95/2/452.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0643&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Tarasevich I, Rydkina E, Raoult D, 1998. Outbreak of epidemic typhus in Russia. Lancet 352: 1151.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brouqui P, Lascola B, Roux V, Raoult D, 1999. Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients. N Engl J Med 340: 184189.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Perine L, Krause D, Awoke S, McDade JE, 1974. Single dose doxycycline treatment of louse-borne relapsing fever and epidemic typhus. Lancet 2: 742744.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Raoult D, Ndihokubwayo JB, Tissot-Dupont H, Roux V, Faugere B, Abegbinni R, Birtles RJ, 1998. Outbreak of epidemic typhus associated with trench fever in Burundi. Lancet 352: 353358.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bechah Y, Capo C, Mege JL, Raoult D, 2008. Epidemic typhus. Lancet Infect Dis 8: 417426.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Perine P, Chandler B, Krause D, 1992. A clinico-epidemiological study of epidemic typhus in Africa. Clin Infect Dis 14: 11491158.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Raoult D, Roux V, 1992. The body louse as a vector of reemerging human diseases. Clin Infect Dis 14: 11491158.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Parola P, Paddock C, Raoult D, 2005. Tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: emerging diseases challenging old concepts. Clin Microbiol Rev 18: 719756.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. World Health Organization, 1994. Epidemic typhus risk in Rwandan refugee camps. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 34: 259.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. World Health Organization, 1993. Global surveillance of rickettsial diseases: memorandum from a WHO meeting. Bull World Health Organ 71: 293296.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dill T, Dobler G, Saathoff E, Clowes P, Kroidl I, Ntinginya E, Machibya H, Maboko L, Löscher T, Hoelscher M, Heinrich N, 2013. High seroprevalence for typhus group rickettsiae, southwestern Tanzania. Emerg Infect Dis 19: 317320.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. McDade J, 1980. Evidence of Rickettsia prowazekii infections in the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 277283.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Green CR, Fishbein D, Gleiberman I, 1990. Brill-Zinsser: still with us. JAMA 264: 18111812.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0643
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0643
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 03 Sep 2015
  • Accepted : 05 May 2016
  • Published online : 03 Aug 2016
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error