1921
Volume 94, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

The epidemiologic status of melioidosis in Sri Lanka was unclear from the few previous case reports. We established laboratory support for a case definition and started a nationwide case-finding study. Suspected isolates were collated, identified by polymerase chain reaction assay, referred for Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and named according to the international MLST database. Between 2006 and early 2014, there were 32 patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis with an increasing annual total and a falling fatality rate. Patients were predominantly from rural communities, diabetic, and male. The major clinical presentations were sepsis, pneumonia, soft tissue and joint infections, and other focal infection. isolates came from all parts of Sri Lanka except the Sabaragamuwa Province, the south central hill country, and parts of northern Sri Lanka. Bacterial isolates belonged to 18 multilocus sequence types, one of which (ST 1137) was associated with septicemia and a single-organ focus (Fisher's exact, = 0.004). Melioidosis is an established endemic infection throughout Sri Lanka, and is caused by multiple genotypes of , which form a distinct geographic group based upon related sequence types (BURST) cluster at the junction of the southeast Asian and Australasian clades.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0567
2016-02-03
2017-11-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/94/2/292.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0567&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Denny CR, Nicholls L, , 1927. Melioidosis in a European. Ceylon J Sci 2: 3740.
  2. Howe C, Sampath A, Spotnitz M, , 1971. The pseudomallei group: a review. J Infect Dis 124: 598606.[Crossref]
  3. Van Peenen PF, See R, Soysa PE, Irving GS, , 1976. Seroepidemiological survey of hospital-associated populations in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1: 1620.
  4. Godoy D, Randle G, Simpson AJ, Aanensen DM, Pitt TL, Kinoshita R, Spratt BG, , 2003. B. pseudomallei MLST, 2015. Available at: http://bpseudomallei.mlst.net/misc/info.asp. Accessed March 24, 2015.
  5. Cheng AC, Currie BJ, , 2005. Melioidosis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. Clin Microbiol Rev 18: 383416.[Crossref]
  6. Gopalakrishnan R, Sureshkumar D, Thirunarayan MA, Ramasubramanian V, , 2013. Melioidosis: an emerging infection in India. J Assoc Physicians India 61: 612614.
  7. Peetermans WE, Van Wijngaerden E, Van Eldere J, Verhaegen J, , 1999. Melioidosis brain and lung abscess after travel to Sri Lanka. Clin Infect Dis 28: 921922.[Crossref]
  8. Jayasekara K, Perera S, Wijesundere A, , 2006. Fatal Burkholderia pseudomallei septicemia. Ceylon Med J 51: 6970.
  9. Inglis TJ, Merritt A, Montgomery J, Jayasinghe I, Thevanesam V, McInnes R, , 2008. Deployable laboratory response to emergence of melioidosis in central Sri Lanka. J Clin Microbiol 46: 34793481.[Crossref]
  10. Corea E, Thevanesam V, Perera S, Jayasinghe I, Ekanayake A, Masakorala J, Inglis T, , 2012. Melioidosis in Sri Lanka: an emerging infection. Sri Lankan J Infect Dis 2: 28.
  11. Nandasiri S, Wimalaratna H, Manjula M, Corea E, , 2012. Transverse myelitis secondary to melioidosis: a case report. BMC Infect Dis 12: 232.[Crossref]
  12. Caldera AS, Kumanan T, Corea E, , 2013. A rare cause of septic arthritis: melioidosis. Trop Doct 43: 164166.[Crossref]
  13. Inglis TJ, Healy PE, Fremlin LJ, Golledge CL, , 2012. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for rapid confirmation of Burkholderia pseudomallei in septicemic melioidosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 10391042.[Crossref]
  14. Merritt A, Inglis TJ, Chidlow G, Harnett G, , 2006. PCR-based identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei . Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 48: 239244.[Crossref]
  15. Novak RT, Glass MB, Gee JE, Gal D, Mayo MJ, Currie BJ, Wilkins PP, , 2006. Development and evaluation of a real-time PCR assay targeting the type III secretion system of Burkholderia pseudomallei . J Clin Microbiol 44: 8590.[Crossref]
  16. Tuanyok A, Auerbach RK, Brettin TS, Bruce DC, Munk AC, Detter JC, Pearson T, Hornstra H, Sermswan RW, Wuthiekanun V, Peacock SJ, Currie BJ, Keim P, Wagner DM, , 2007. A horizontal gene transfer event defines two distinct groups within Burkholderia pseudomallei that have dissimilar geographic distributions. J Bacteriol 1894: 90449049.[Crossref]
  17. Godoy D, Randle G, Simpson AJ, Aanensen DM, Pitt TL, Kinoshita R, Spratt BG, , 2003. Multilocus sequence typing and evolutionary relationships among the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei . J Clin Microbiol 41: 20682079.[Crossref]
  18. Francisco AP, Bugalho M, Ramirez M, Carrico JA, , 2009. Global optimal eBURST analysis of multilocus typing data using a graphic matroid approach. BMC Bioinformatics 10: 152.[Crossref]
  19. Librado P, Rozas J, , 2009. DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics 25: 14511452.[Crossref]
  20. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P, , 2000. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155: 945959.
  21. Pearson T, Giffard P, Beckstrom-Sternberg S, Auerbach R, Hornstra H, Tuanyok A, Price EP, Glass MB, Leadem B, Beckstrom-Sternberg JS, Allan GJ, Foster JT, Wagner DM, Okinaka RT, Sim SH, Pearson O, Wu Z, Chang J, Kaul R, Hoffmaster AR, Brettin TS, Robison RA, Mayo M, Gee JE, Tan P, Currie BJ, Keim P, , 2009. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer. BMC Biol 7: 78.[Crossref]
  22. De Smet B, Sarovich DS, Price EP, Mayo M, Theobald V, Kham C, Heng S, Thong P, Holden MT, Parkhill J, Peacock SJ, Spratt BG, Jacobs JA, Vandamme P, Currie BJ, , 2015. Whole-genome sequencing confirms that Burkholderia pseudomallei multilocus sequence types common to both Cambodia and Australia are due to homoplasy. J Clin Microbiol 53: 323326.[Crossref]
  23. Dance DA, , 1991. Melioidosis: the tip of the iceberg? Clin Microbiol Rev 4: 5260.[Crossref]
  24. Inglis TJ, Garrow SC, Henderson M, Clair A, Sampson J, O'Reilly L, Cameron B, , 2000. Burkholderia pseudomallei traced to water treatment plant in Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 6: 5659.
  25. Currie BJ, Jacups SP, , 2003. Intensity of rainfall and severity of melioidosis, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 15381542.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0567
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0567
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 07 Aug 2015
  • Accepted : 12 Oct 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error