1921
Volume 94, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

Notifications of amebiasis have been increasing in Japan. Using national surveillance data during 2000–2013, reported cases of amebiasis were analyzed. A case of amebiasis was defined as laboratory-confirmed infection, regardless of presence of symptoms. We described temporal trends and analyzed correlates of asymptomatic versus symptomatic cases based on odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression. Of 9,946 cases reported during 2000–2013, 7,403 were domestic cases. During this period, the proportion of domestic cases increased from 63% to 85%. Among male cases, majority were middle aged, and from 2008, the number of cases attributed to heterosexual contact surpassed that of homosexual contact. During 2010–2013, increase in notifications was associated with asymptomatic cases, colonoscopy diagnosis, and males with unknown or heterosexual route of infection. Among males, colonoscopy (OR = 31.5; 95% CI = 14.0–71.0) and cases with unknown route of infection, relative to homosexual contact (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.3–3.9), were associated with asymptomatic infections in multivariate analysis. Although the recent rise may have been due to enhanced detection by colonoscopy or reporting, the large number of asymptomatic cases, with reportedly unknown or heterosexual route of infection, has led to a better understanding of amebiasis in Japan and highlights the potential public health concern.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0560
2016-05-04
2017-11-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/94/5/1008.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0560&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Debnath A, Parsonage D, Andrade RM, He C, Cobo ER, Hirata K, Chen S, García-Rivera G, Orozco E, Martínez MB, Gunatilleke SS, Barrios AM, Arkin MR, Poole LB, McKerrow JH, Reed SL, , 2012. A high throughput drug screen for Entamoeba histolytica identifies a new lead and target. Nat Med 18: 956960.[Crossref]
  2. Andrade RM, Reed SL, , 2015. New drug target in protozoan parasites: the role of thioredoxin reductase. Front Microbiol 30: 975.
  3. Petri WA, Haque R, Jr Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, , 2015. Entamoeba species, including amebiasis. , editors. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 30473058.
  4. Chen KT, Chen CJ, Chiu JP, , 2001. A school waterborne outbreak involving both Shigella sonnei and Entamoeba histolytica . J Environ Health 64: 913.
  5. Blessmann J, Ali IK, Nu PA, Dinh BT, Viet TQ, Van AL, Clark CG, Tannich E, , 2003. Longitudinal study of intestinal Entamoeba histolytica infections in asymptomatic adult carriers. J Clin Microbiol 41: 47454750.[Crossref]
  6. Rivera WL, Tachibana H, Kanbara H, , 1998. Field study on the distribution of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in the northern Philippines as detected by the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 916921.
  7. WHO/FAO, 2014. Multicriteria-based Ranking for Risk Management of Food-Borne Parasites. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/112672/1/9789241564700_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed June 1, 2015.
  8. Lo YC, Ji DD, Hung CC, , 2014. Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among Entamoeba histolytica-infected adult males: a changing epidemiology associated with sexual transmission—Taiwan, 2006–2013. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3222.[Crossref]
  9. Takeuchi T, Okuzawa E, Nozaki T, Kobayashi S, Mizokami M, Minoshima N, Yamamoto M, Isomura S, , 1989. High seropositivity of Japanese homosexual men for amebic infection. J Infect Dis 159: 808.[Crossref]
  10. James R, Barratt J, Marriott D, Harkness J, Stark D, , 2010. Seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection among men who have sex with men in Sydney, Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 914916.[Crossref]
  11. Leung PO, Chen KH, Chen KL, Tsai YT, Liu SY, Chen KT, , 2014. Epidemiological features of intestinal infection with Entamoeba histolytica in Taiwan, 2002–2010. Travel Med Infect Dis 5: 673679.[Crossref]
  12. NIID, 2007. Amebiasis in Japan 2003–2006. Infect Agents Surveill Rep 28: 103164.
  13. NIID, 2014. Amebiasis in Japan 2010–2013. Infect Agents Surveill Rep 35: 223224.
  14. Ohnishi K, Kato Y, Imamura A, Fukayama M, Tsunoda T, Sakaue Y, Sakamoto M, Sagara H, , 2004. Present characteristics of symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infection in the big cities of Japan. Epidemiol Infect 132: 5760.[Crossref]
  15. Nagata N, Shimbo T, Akiyama J, Nakashima R, Nishimura S, Yada T, Watanabe K, Oka S, Uemura N, , 2012. Risk factors for intestinal invasive amebiasis in Japan, 2003–2009. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 717724.[Crossref]
  16. Watanabe K, Gatanaga H, Escueta-de Cadiz A, Tanuma J, Nozaki T, Oka S, , 2011. Amebiasis in HIV-1-infected Japanese men: clinical features and response to therapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1318.[Crossref]
  17. Horiki N, Furukawa K, Kitade T, Sakuno T, Katsurahara M, Harada T, Tano S, Yamada R, Hamada Y, Inoue H, Tanaka K, Gabazza EC, Ishii N, Fukuda K, Omata F, Fujita Y, Tachibana H, Takei Y, , 2015. Endoscopic findings and lesion distribution in amebic colitis. J Infect Chemother 21: 444448.[Crossref]
  18. Kishihara T, Ishiyama A, Fumizono Y, Imada S, Ogawa T, Chino A, Uragami N, Igarashi M, , 2008. Study on amebic colitis: especially differential diagnosis from IBD. Prog Dig Endosc 73: 7779.[Crossref]
  19. Akazawai K, Ichikawa T, Tawa Y, Oi I, Machida N, Ogiwara H, Negishi Y, Yamashiro Y, Sasaki H, Okubo S, Abe K, Fujino M, , 2012. Clinical features of amebic colitis: an analysis of ten cases. Prog Dig Endosc 80: 6869.[Crossref]
  20. e-Stat, 2015. Portal Site of Official Statistics of Japan. Available at: http://www.e-stat.go.jp/SG1/estat/eStatTopPortalE.do. Accessed June 1, 2015.
  21. Hamzah Z, Petmitr S, Mungthin M, Leelayoova S, Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr P, , 2006. Differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii by a single-round PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 44: 31963200.[Crossref]
  22. Nozaki T, Kobayashi S, Takeuchi T, Haghighi A, , 2006. Diversity of clinical isolates of Entamoeba histolytica in Japan. Arch Med Res 37: 277279.[Crossref]
  23. Nozaki T, Motta SR, Takeuchi T, Kobayashi S, Sargeaunt PG, , 1989. Pathogenic zymodemes of Entamoeba histolytica in Japanese male homosexual population. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83: 525.[Crossref]
  24. Hung CC, Wu PY, Chang SY, Ji DD, Sun HY, Liu WC, Wu CH, Chang SC, , 2011. Amebiasis among persons who sought voluntary counseling and testing for human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case-control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 6569.[Crossref]
  25. Yanagisawa N, , 2012. Amebiasis. Mod Med 58: 237245.
  26. Hoque MI, Uddin MS, Sarker AR, Uddin MK, , 2014. Common presentation of amebic liver abscess—a study in a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh. Mymensingh Med J 23: 724729.
  27. Chen HL, Bair MJ, Lin IT, Wu CH, Lee YK, , 2013. Clinical manifestations and risk factors of amebic liver abscess in southeast Taiwan compared with other regions of Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 12141218.[Crossref]
  28. Lotter H, Jacobs T, Gaworski I, Tannich E, , 2006. Sexual dimorphism in the control of amebic liver abscess in a mouse model of disease. Infect Immun 74: 118124.[Crossref]
  29. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, 2013. Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions. Available at: http://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/saikin/hw/k-tyosa/k-tyosa13/. Accessed June 1, 2015.
  30. Okamoto M, Kawabe T, Ohata K, Togo G, Hada T, Katamoto T, Tanno M, Matsumura M, Yamaji Y, Watabe H, Ikenoue T, Yoshida H, Omata M, , 2005. Amebic colitis in asymptomatic subjects with positive fecal occult blood test results: clinical features different from symptomatic cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 934935.
  31. Gallo MF, Warner L, Hobbs MM, Jamieson DJ, Hylton-Kong T, Steiner MJ, , 2015. Differences in misreporting of sexual behavior over time: implications for HIV trials. Sex Transm Dis 42: 160161.[Crossref]
  32. Hung CC, Chang SY, Ji DD, , 2012. Entamoeba histolytica infection in men who have sex with men. Lancet Infect Dis 12: 729736.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0560
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0560
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 03 Aug 2015
  • Accepted : 28 Jan 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error