Volume 94, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Research evidence continues to reveal findings important for health professionals' clinical practices, yet it is not consistently disseminated to those who can use it. The resulting deficits in knowledge and service provision may be especially pronounced in low- and middle-income countries that have greater resource constraints. Tuberculosis treatment is an important area for assessing professionals' knowledge and practices because of the effectiveness of existing treatments and recognized gaps in professionals' knowledge about treatment. This study surveyed 384 health professionals in China, India, Iran, and Mexico on their knowledge and practices related to tuberculosis treatment. Few respondents correctly answered all five knowledge questions (12%) or self-reported performing all five recommended clinical practices “often or very often” (3%). Factors associated with higher knowledge scores included clinical specialization and working with researchers. Factors associated with better practices included training in the care of tuberculosis patients, being based in a hospital, trusting systematic reviews of randomized controlled double-blind trials, and reading summaries of articles, reports, and reviews. This study highlights several strategies that may prove effective in improving health professionals' knowledge and practices related to tuberculosis treatment. Facilitating interactions with researchers and training in acquiring systematic reviews may be especially helpful.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Haines A, Kuruvilla S, Borchert M, , 2004. Bridging the implementation gap between knowledge and action for health. Bull World Health Organ 82: 724731. [Google Scholar]
  2. World Health Organization, 2004. World Report on Knowledge for Better Health: Strengthening Health Systems. Available at: http://www.who.int/rpc/meetings/pub1/en/. Accessed February 3, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  3. Jones G, Steketee RW, Black RE, Bhutta ZA, Morris SS, Bellagio Child Survival Study Group, , 2003. How many child deaths can we prevent this year? Lancet 362: 6571.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. World Health Organization, 2012. Global Tuberculosis Report 2012. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  5. Ahmed M, Fatmi Z, Ali S, Ahmed J, Ara N, , 2009. Knowledge, attitude and practice of private practitioners regarding TB-DOTS in a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 21: 2831. [Google Scholar]
  6. Al-Maniri AA, Al-Rawas OA, Al-Ajmi F, De Costa A, Eriksson B, Diwan VK, , 2008. Tuberculosis suspicion and knowledge among private and public general practitioners: questionnaire based study in Oman. BMC Public Health 8: 177.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Arif K, Ali SA, Amanullah S, Siddiqui I, Khan JA, Nayani P, , 1998. Physician compliance with national tuberculosis treatment guidelines: a university hospital study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2: 225230. [Google Scholar]
  8. Chakaya JM, Meme H, Kwamanga D, Githui WA, Onyango-Ouma WO, Gicheha C, Karimi F, Mansoer J, Kutwa A, , 2005. Planning for PPM-DOTS implementation in urban slums in Kenya: knowledge, attitude and practices of private health care providers in Kibera slum, Nairobi. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 9: 403408. [Google Scholar]
  9. Dagli CE, Cetin TA, Hamit A, Yilmaz P, Gurdal Y, Ekrem G, Levent S, Abdullah D, Nurhan K, , 2009. A multicentre study of doctors' approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in Turkey. J Infect Dev Ctries 3: 357364.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Deveci SE, Turgut T, Açik Y, Deveci F, Muz MH, , 2003. The knowledge, attitude and behavior related to the tuberculosis and approaches of tuberculosis therapy by the physicians providing first step service [in Turkish]. Tuberk Toraks 51: 4047. [Google Scholar]
  11. Gidado M, Ejembi CL, , 2009. Tuberculosis case management and treatment outcome: assessment of the effectiveness of Public-Private Mix of tuberculosis programme in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 8: 2531.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Hong YP, Kwon DW, Kim SJ, Chang SC, Kang MK, Lee EP, Moon HD, Lew WJ, , 1995. Survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices for tuberculosis among general practitioners. Tuber Lung Dis 76: 431435.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Khan JA, Zahid S, Khan R, Hussain SF, Rizvi N, Rab A, Javed A, Ahmad A, Ait-Khaled N, Enarson DA, , 2005. Medical interns knowledge of TB in Pakistan. Trop Doct 35: 144147.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Khan J, Malik A, Hussain H, Ali NK, Akbani F, Hussain SJ, Kazi GN, Hussain SF, , 2003. Tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment practices of private physicians in Karachi, Pakistan. East Mediterr Health J 9: 769775. [Google Scholar]
  15. Mahendradhata Y, Utarini A, Lazuardi U, Boelaert M, Stuyft PV, , 2007. Private practitioners and tuberculosis case detection in Jogjakarta, Indonesia: actual role and potential. Trop Med Int Health 12: 12181224.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Nshuti L, Neuhauser D, Johnson JL, Adatu F, Whalen CC, , 2001. Public and private providers' quality of care for tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 5: 10061012. [Google Scholar]
  17. Portero JL, Rubio M, , 2003. Private practitioners and tuberculosis control in the Philippines: strangers when they meet? Trop Med Int Health 8: 329335.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Rajpal S, Mittal A, Dhingra VK, Malhotra R, Gupta R, Malhotra C, Taneja DK, , 2007. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding tuberculosis and dots among interns in Delhi, India. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 17: 457461. [Google Scholar]
  19. Rizvi N, Hussain M, , 2001. Survey of knowledge about tuberculosis amongst family physicians. J Pak Med Assoc 51: 333337. [Google Scholar]
  20. Shah SK, Sadiq H, Khalil M, Noor A, Rasheed G, Shah SM, Ahmad N, , 2003. Do private doctors follow national guidelines for managing pulmonary tuberculosis in Pakistan? East Mediterr Health J 9: 776788. [Google Scholar]
  21. Shehzadi R, Irfan M, Zohra T, Khan JA, Hussain SF, , 2005. Knowledge regarding management of tuberculosis among general practitioners in northern areas of Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 55: 174176. [Google Scholar]
  22. Shimeles E, Aseffa A, Yamuah L, Tilahun H, Engers H, , 2006. Knowledge and practice of private practitioners in TB control in Addis Ababa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10: 11721177. [Google Scholar]
  23. Singla N, Sharma PP, Singla R, Jain RC, , 1998. Survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices for tuberculosis among general practitioners in Delhi, India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2: 384389. [Google Scholar]
  24. Srivastava DK, Mishra A, Mishra S, Chouksey M, Jain P, Gour N, Bansal M, , 2011. A comparative assessment of KAP regarding tuberculosis and RNTCP among government and private practitioners in District Gwalior, India: an operational research. Indian J Tuberc 58: 168177. [Google Scholar]
  25. Vandan N, Ali M, Prasad R, Kuroiwa C, , 2009. Assessment of doctors' knowledge regarding tuberculosis management in Lucknow, India: a public-private sector comparison. Public Health 123: 484489.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. van der Werf MJ, Langendam MW, Huitric E, Manissero D, , 2012. Knowledge of tuberculosis-treatment prescription of health workers: a systematic review. Eur Respir J 39: 12481255.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Bell CA, Duncan G, Saini B, , 2011. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of private sector providers of tuberculosis care: a scoping review. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15: 10051017.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Langendam MW, van der Werf MJ, Huitric E, Manissero D, , 2012. Prevalence of inappropriate tuberculosis treatment regimens: a systematic review. Eur Respir J 39: 10121020.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Gizaw GD, Alemu ZA, Kibret KT, , 2015. Assessment of knowledge and practice of health workers towards tuberculosis infection control and associated factors in public health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Arch Public Health 73: 15.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Shirzadi MR, Majdzadeh R, Pourmalek F, Naraghi K, , 2003. Adherence of the private sector to national tuberculosis guidelines in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2001–02. East Mediterr Health J 9: 796804. [Google Scholar]
  31. Suleiman BA, Houssein AI, Mehta F, Hinderaker SG, , 2003. Do doctors in north-western Somalia follow the national guidelines for tuberculosis management? East Mediterr Health J 9: 789795. [Google Scholar]
  32. Yimer SA, Holm-Hansen C, Bjune G, , 2012. Assessment of knowledge and practice of private practitioners regarding tuberculosis control in Ethiopia. J Infect Dev Ctries 6: 1319.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. STOP TB Partnership, 2011. The Global Plan to Stop TB 2011–2015. Available at: http://www.stoptb.org/assets/documents/global/plan/tb_globalplantostoptb2011-2015.pdf. Accessed January 29, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  34. Laxminarayan R, Klein EY, Darley S, Adeyi O, , 2009. Global investments in TB control: economic benefits. Health Aff (Millwood) 28: w730w742.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  35. Smetana GW, Landon BE, Bindman AB, Burstin H, Davis RB, Tjia J, Rich EC, , 2007. A comparison of outcomes resulting from generalist vs specialist care for a single discrete medical condition. Arch Intern Med 167: 1020.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  36. Guindon GE, Lavis J, Boupha B, Shi G, Sidibe M, Turdaliyeva B, Research to Policy and Practice Study Team, , 2010. Bridging the gaps among research, policy and practice in ten low- and middle-income countries: development and testing of a questionnaire for health-care providers. Health Res Policy Syst 8: 3.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  37. Guindon GE, Lavis JN, Becerra-Posada F, Malek-Afzali H, Shi G, Yesudian CAK, Hoffman SJ, for the Research to Policy and Practice Study Team, , 2010. Bridging the gaps between research, policy and practice in low- and middle-income countries: a survey of health care providers. Can Med Assoc J 182: E362E372.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  38. Cameron D, Lavis JN, Guindon GE, Akhtar T, Becerra Posada F, Ndossi G, Boupha B, Research to Policy and Practice Study Team, , 2010. Bridging the gaps among research, policy and practice in ten low- and middle-income countries: development and testing of a questionnaire for researchers. Health Res Policy Syst 8: 4.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. Lavis JN, Guindon GE, Cameron D, Boupha B, Dejman M, Osei EJA, Sadana R, for the Research to Policy and Practice Study Team, , 2010. Bridging the gaps between research, policy and practice in low- and middle-income countries: a survey of researchers. Can Med Assoc J 182: E350E361.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  40. Hoffman SJ, Guindon GE, Lavis JN, Ndossi GD, Osei EJA, Sidibe MF, Boupha B, , 2011. Assessing healthcare providers' knowledge and practices relating to insecticide-treated nets and the prevention of malaria in Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania. Malar J 10: 363.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  41. McColl A, Smith H, White P, Field J, , 1998. General practitioner's perceptions of the route to evidence based medicine: a questionnaire survey. BMJ 316: 361365.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. ICF International, 2012. Measure Demographic and Health Surveys Service Provision Assessment Survey Available at: http://dhsprogram.com/What-We-Do/Survey-Types/SPA.cfm. Accessed February 5, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  43. Page J, Heller RF, Kinlay S, Lim LL, Qian W, Suping Z, Kongpatanakul S, Akhtar M, Khedr S, Macharia W, , 2003. Attitudes of developing world physicians to where medical research is performed and reported. BMC Public Health 3: 6.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  44. Prescott K, Lloyd M, Douglas HR, Haines A, Humphrey C, Rosenthal J, Watt I, , 1997. Promoting clinically effective practice: general practitioners' awareness of sources of research evidence. Fam Pract 14: 320323.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  45. Wilson P, Droogan J, Glanville J, Watt I, Hardman G, , 2001. Access to the evidence base from general practice: a survey of general practice staff in Northern and Yorkshire Region. Qual Health Care 10: 8389.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  46. Wilson P, Glanville J, Watt I, , 2003. Access to the online evidence base in general practice: a survey of the Northern and Yorkshire Region. Health Info Libr J 20: 172178.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  47. Kuruvilla S, , 2002. WHO Health Research Utilization Assessment Project: Questionnaire for Health Providers—Pilot. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  48. World Health Organization, 2004. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) Multi-Country Evaluation—Health Facility Survey. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  49. Landry R, Lamari M, Amara N, , 2003. The extent and determinants of the utilization of university research in government agencies. Public Adm Rev 63: 192205.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  50. Lengeler C, Cattani J, Savigny D, , 1997. Net Gain: Operational Aspects of a New Health Intervention for Preventing Malaria Death. Geneva, Switzerland and Ottawa, Canada: World Health Organization and International Development Research Centre. [Google Scholar]
  51. Lines JD, Myamba J, Curtis CF, , 1987. Experimental hut trials of permethrin-impregnated mosquito nets and eave curtains against malaria vectors in Tanzania. Med Vet Entomol 1: 3751.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  52. Maxwell CA, Chambo W, Mwaimu M, Magogo F, Carneiro IA, Curtis CF, , 2003. Variation of malaria transmission and morbidity with altitude in Tanzania and with introduction of alphacypermethrin treated nets. Malar J 2: 28.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  53. Tami A, Mubyazi G, Talbert A, Mshinda H, Duchon S, Lengeler C, , 2004. Evaluation of Olyset insecticide-treated nets distributed seven years previously in Tanzania. Malar J 3: 19.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  54. Emili J, Norman GR, Upshur RE, Scott F, John KR, Schmuck ML, , 2001. Knowledge and practices regarding tuberculosis: a survey of final-year medical students from Canada, India and Uganda. Med Educ 35: 530536.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  55. LoBue PA, Moser K, Catanzaro A, , 2001. Management of tuberculosis in San Diego County: a survey of physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 5: 933938. [Google Scholar]
  56. United Nations, 2005. World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision. Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/WPP2004_Volume3.htm. Accessed January 27, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  57. International Monetary Fund, 2007. World Economic Outlook Database. Available at: https://www.imf.org/external/ns/cs.aspx?id=28. Accessed January 29, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  58. World Health Organization, 2007. World Health Statistics 2007. Available at: http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat2007/en/. Accessed February 2, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  59. United Nations Statistics Division, 2008. United Nations Common Database. Available at: http://data.un.org. Accessed January 28, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  60. Cook DJ, Mulrow CD, Haynes RB, , 1997. Systematic reviews: synthesis of best evidence for clinical decisions. Ann Intern Med 126: 376380.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  61. Lavis JN, Davies HT, Gruen RL, Walshe K, Farquhar CM, , 2006. Working within and beyond the Cochrane Collaboration to make systematic reviews more useful to healthcare managers and policy makers. Healthc Policy 1: 2133. [Google Scholar]
  62. Oxman AD, Guyatt G, Guyatt G, Drummond R, , 2002. When to believe a subgroup analysis. , eds. Users' Guide to the Medical Literature: A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 553565. [Google Scholar]
  63. Volmink J, Garner P, , 2007. Directly observed therapy for treating tuberculosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003343. [Google Scholar]
  64. Volmink J, Garner P, , 1997. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of strategies to promote adherence to tuberculosis treatment. BMJ 315: 14031406.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  65. Haynes RB, Mulrow CD, Huth EJ, Altman DG, Gardner MJ, , 1990. More informative abstracts revisited. Ann Intern Med 113: 6976.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  66. StataCorp LP, 2009. Stata Multiple-Imputation Reference Manual Release 11. Available at: http://www.stata.com/features/. Accessed February 7, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  67. Ford N, Nachega JB, Engel ME, Mills EJ, , 2009. Directly observed antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Lancet 374: 20642071.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  68. van der Werf MJ, Langendam MW, Huitric E, Manissero D, , 2012. Multidrug resistance after inappropriate tuberculosis treatment: a meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 39: 15111519.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  69. Studts JL, Burris JL, Kearns DK, Worth CT, Sorrell CL, , 2009. “Providers practice prevention”: promoting dental hygienists' use of evidence-based treatment of tobacco use and dependence. J Dent Educ 73: 10691082. [Google Scholar]
  70. Sheffer CE, Barone CP, Anders ME, , 2009. Training health care providers in the treatment of tobacco use and dependence: pre- and post-training results. J Eval Clin Pract 15: 607613.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  71. Applegate BW, Sheffer CE, Crews KM, Payne TJ, Smith PO, , 2008. A survey of tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of primary care providers in Mississippi. J Eval Clin Pract 14: 537544.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  72. Bigelow C, Patton LL, Strauss RP, Wilder RS, , 2007. North Carolina dental hygienists' view on oral cancer control. J Dent Hyg 81: 83. [Google Scholar]
  73. Jenkins K, Ahijevych K, , 2003. Nursing students' beliefs about smoking, their own smoking behaviors, and use of professional tobacco treatment intervention. Appl Nurs Res 16: 164172.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  74. Menees SB, Patel DA, Dalton V, , 2009. Colorectal cancer screening practices among obstetrician/gynecologists and nurse practitioners. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 18: 12331238.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  75. Rim SH, Zittleman L, Westfall JM, Overholser L, Froshaug D, Coughlin SS, , 2009. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices regarding colorectal cancer screening among health care professionals in rural Colorado: a pilot survey. J Rural Health 25: 303308.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  76. Berkowitz Z, Hawkins NA, Peipins LA, White MC, Nadel MR, , 2008. Beliefs, risk perceptions, and gaps in knowledge as barriers to colorectal cancer screening in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 56: 307314.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  77. Sabatino SA, McCarthy EP, Phillips RS, Burns RB, , 2007. Breast cancer risk assessment and management in primary care: provider attitudes, practices, and barriers. Cancer Detect Prev 31: 375383.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  78. Daley MF, Liddon N, Crane LA, Beaty BL, Barrow J, Babbel C, Markowitz LE, Dunne EF, Stokley S, Dickinson LM, Berman S, Kempe A, , 2006. A national survey of pediatrician knowledge and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus vaccination. Pediatrics 118: 22802289.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  79. Nizami SQ, Khan IA, Bhutta ZA, , 1995. Differences in self-reported and observed prescribing practice of general practitioners and paediatricians for acute watery diarrhoea in children of Karachi, Pakistan. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 13: 2932. [Google Scholar]
  80. Kundi MZ, Ahmad I, Anjum M, , 1997. Evaluation of diarrhoea management of health professionals trained at the Diarrhoea Training Unit of Rawalpindi General Hospital. J Pak Med Assoc 47: 36. [Google Scholar]
  81. Ibrahim S, Isani Z, , 1997. Evaluation of doctors trained at Diarrhoea Training Unit of National Institute of Child Health, Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc 47: 711. [Google Scholar]
  82. Kasi M, Kausar P, Naz R, Miller LC, , 1995. Treatment of diarrhoea in infants by medical doctors in Balochistan, Pakistan. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 13: 238241. [Google Scholar]
  83. Singh J, Bora D, Sachdeva V, Sharma RS, Verghese T, , 1995. Prescribing pattern by doctors for acute diarrhoea in children in Delhi, India. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 13: 229231. [Google Scholar]
  84. Raghu MB, Balasubramanian S, Indumathy Balasubrahmanyam G, , 1995. Awareness of and attitude towards oral rehydration therapy. Indian J Pediatr 62: 439443.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  85. Ozuah PO, Avner JR, Stein RE, , 2002. Oral rehydration, emergency physicians, and practice parameters: a national survey. Pediatrics 109: 259261.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  86. Choudhry AJ, Mubasher M, , 1997. Factors influencing the prescribing patterns in acute watery diarrhoea. J Pak Med Assoc 47: 3235. [Google Scholar]
  87. Steiner MJ, Raymond E, Attafuah JD, Hays M, , 2000. Provider knowledge about emergency contraception in Ghana. J Biosoc Sci 32: 99106.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  88. Suhaimi H, Monga D, Siva A, , 1996. A study of knowledge and attitudes towards contraception among health care staff in Kelantan (Malaysia). Singapore Med J 37: 5154. [Google Scholar]
  89. Khasiani SA, , 1991. Family planning knowledge, attitudes and practices among health centre personnel in Western Province of Kenya. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa 9: 3036. [Google Scholar]
  90. Quereshi ZP, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, , 1991. A survey to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice of family planning amongst the nursing staff at Kenyatta National Hospital. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa 9: 4951. [Google Scholar]
  91. Gaffikin L, Phiri A, McGrath J, Zinanga A, Blumenthal PD, , 1998. Provider attitudes toward IUD provision in Zimbabwe: perception of HIV risk and training implications. Adv Contracept 14: 2739.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  92. Gigerenzer G, Gray JAM, , eds., 2011. Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care 2020. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [Google Scholar]
  93. Zonfrillo MR, Nelson KA, Durbin DR, , 2011. Emergency physicians' knowledge and provision of child passenger safety information. Acad Emerg Med 18: 145151.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  94. Shih YC, Sleath BL, , 2004. Health care provider knowledge of drug formulary status in ambulatory care settings. Am J Health Syst Pharm 61: 26572663. [Google Scholar]
  95. Hodges B, Inch C, Silver I, , 2001. Improving the psychiatric knowledge, skills, and attitudes of primary care physicians, 1950–2000: a review. Am J Psychiatry 158: 15791586.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  96. Parada JP, Schwartz DN, Schiff GD, Weiss KB, , 2005. Effects of type and level of training on variation in physician knowledge in the use and acquisition of blood cultures: a cross sectional survey. BMC Infect Dis 5: 71.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  97. Soons KR, Lynch T, Seagrave M, Rolley L, , 1997. Determining physicians' knowledge and attitudes when prescribing drugs to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Clin Perform Qual Health Care 5: 9498. [Google Scholar]
  98. Mona Eng P, Seeger JD, Loughlin J, Oh K, Walker AM, , 2007. Serum potassium monitoring for users of ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone taking medications predisposing to hyperkalemia: physician compliance and survey of knowledge and attitudes. Contraception 75: 101107.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  99. Volpe M, Dedhiya SD, , 2006. Physicians, patients, and public knowledge and perception regarding hypertension and stroke: a review of survey studies. Curr Med Res Opin 22: 13191330.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  100. Zickmund SL, Brown KE, Bielefeldt K, , 2007. A systematic review of provider knowledge of hepatitis C: is it enough for a complex disease? Dig Dis Sci 52: 25502556.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  101. Zeteroglu S, Sahin G, Sahin HA, Bolluk G, , 2004. Knowledge and attitudes towards emergency contraception of health-care providers in a region with a high birth rate. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 9: 102106.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  102. Krille L, Hammer GP, Merzenich H, Zeeb H, , 2010. Systematic review on physician's knowledge about radiation doses and radiation risks of computed tomography. Eur J Radiol 76: 3641.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  103. Wurst KE, Sleath BL, , 2004. Physician knowledge and adherence to prescribing antibiotic prophylaxis for sickle cell disease. Int J Qual Health Care 16: 245251.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  104. Kimura S, Pacala JT, , 1997. Pressure ulcers in adults: family physicians' knowledge, attitudes, practice preferences, and awareness of AHCPR guidelines. J Fam Pract 44: 361368. [Google Scholar]
  105. Chin MH, Friedmann PD, Cassel CK, Lang RM, , 1997. Differences in generalist and specialist physicians' knowledge and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for congestive heart failure. J Gen Intern Med 12: 523530.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  106. Linnehan MJ, Andrews S, Groce NE, , 1996. College health providers' knowledge, attitudes, and management practices of genital HPV infection. Nurse Pract 21: 122124, 127–129.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  107. van Gerwen M, Franc C, Rosman S, Le Vaillant M, Pelletier-Fleury N, , 2009. Primary care physicians' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices regarding childhood obesity: a systematic review. Obes Rev 10: 227236.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  108. Wolfert MZ, Gilson AM, Dahl JL, Cleary JF, , 2010. Opioid analgesics for pain control: Wisconsin physicians' knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and prescribing practices. Pain Med 11: 425434.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  109. Socolar RR, Raines B, Chen-Mok M, Runyan DK, Green C, Paterno S, , 1998. Intervention to improve physician documentation and knowledge of child sexual abuse: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 101: 817824.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  110. Chen DT, Wynia MK, Moloney RM, Alexander GC, , 2009. U.S. physician knowledge of the FDA-approved indications and evidence base for commonly prescribed drugs: results of a national survey. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 18: 10941100.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  111. Carr VJ, Faehrmann C, Lewin TJ, Walton JM, Reid AA, , 1997. Determining the effect that consultation-liaison psychiatry in primary care has on family physicians' psychiatric knowledge and practice. Psychosomatics 38: 217229.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  112. Barker GJ, Epstein JB, Williams KB, Gorsky M, Raber-Durlacher JE, , 2005. Current practice and knowledge of oral care for cancer patients: a survey of supportive health care providers. Support Care Cancer 13: 3241.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  113. Zierler BK, Meissner MH, Cain K, Strandness DE, Jr, 2002. A survey of physicians' knowledge and management of venous thromboembolism. Vasc Endovascular Surg 36: 367375.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  114. Wajanga BMK, Peck RN, Kalluvya S, Fitzgerald DW, Smart LR, Downs JA, , 2014. Healthcare worker perceived barriers to early initiation of antiretroviral and tuberculosis therapy among Tanzanian inpatients. PLoS One 9: e87584.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  115. Lehmann U, Dieleman M, Martineau T, , 2008. Staffing remote rural areas in middle- and low-income countries: a literature review of attraction and retention. BMC Health Serv Res 8: 19.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  116. Sumartojo EM, Geiter LJ, Miller B, Hale BE, , 1997. Can physicians treat tuberculosis? Report on a national survey of physician practices. Am J Public Health 87: 20082011.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  117. Orler RL, Friedberg MW, Adams JL, McGlynn EA, Mehrotra A, , 2010. Associations between physician characteristics and quality of care. Arch Intern Med 170: 14421449. [Google Scholar]
  118. Grimshaw JM, Shirran L, Thomas R, Mowatt GFC, Bero L, Grilli R, Harvey E, Oxman A, O'Brien MA, , 2001. Changing provider behavior: an overview of systematic reviews of interventions. Med Care 39: 112145.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  119. Grimshaw JM, Thomas RE, MacLennan G, Fraser C, Ramsay CR, Vale L, Whitty P, Eccles MP, Matowe L, Shirran L, Wensing M, Dijkstra R, Donaldson C, , 2004. Effectiveness and efficiency of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies. Health Technol Assess 8: 172.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  120. Bakken S, Lantigua RA, Busacca LV, Bigger JT, , 2010. Barriers, enablers, and incentives for research participation: a report from the Ambulatory Care Research Network (ACRN). J Am Board Fam Med 22: 436445.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  121. Sandberd JG, Johnson LN, Robila M, Miller RB, , 2002. Clinician identified barriers to clinical research. J Marital Fam Ther 28: 6167.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  122. Adams AS, Soumerai SB, Lomas J, Ross-Degnan D, , 1999. Evidence of self-report bias in assessing adherence to guidelines. Int J Qual Health Care 11: 187192.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  123. Stead LF, Bergson G, Lancaster T, , 2008. Physician advice for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000165. [Google Scholar]
  124. Rice VH, Stead LF, , 2008. Nursing interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD001188. [Google Scholar]
  125. Sinclair HK, Bond CM, Stead LF, , 2004. Community pharmacy personnel interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003698. [Google Scholar]
  126. Brunner EJ, Rees K, Ward K, Burke M, Thorogood M, , 2007. Dietary advice for reducing cardiovascular risk. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD002128. [Google Scholar]
  127. Hooper L, Bartlett C, Davey SG, Ebrahim S, , 2004. Advice to reduce dietary salt for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003656. [Google Scholar]
  128. Jamtvedt G, Young JM, Kristoffersen DT, O'Brien MA, Oxman AD, , 2006. Audit and feedback: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000259. [Google Scholar]
  129. Farmer AP, Légaré F, Turcot L, Grimshaw J, Harvey E, McGowan JL, Wolf F, , 2008. Printed educational materials: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD004398. [Google Scholar]
  130. Forsetlund L, Bjørndal A, Rashidian A, Jamtvedt G, O'Brien MA, Wolf F, Davis D, Odgaard-Jensen J, Oxman AD, , 2009. Continuing education meetings and workshops: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003030. [Google Scholar]
  131. Flodgren G, Parmelli E, Doumit G, Gattellari M, O'Brien MA, Grimshaw J, Eccles MP, , 2007. Local opinion leaders: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000125. [Google Scholar]
  132. O'Brien MA, Rogers S, Jamtvedt G, Oxman AD, Odgaard-Jensen J, Kristoffersen DT, Forsetlund L, Bainbridge D, Freemantle N, Davis DA, Haynes RB, Harvey EL, , 2007. Educational outreach visits: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000409. [Google Scholar]
  133. Shojania KG, Jennings A, Mayhew A, Ramsay CR, Eccles MP, Grimshaw J, , 2009. The effects of on-screen, point of care computer reminders on processes and outcomes of care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD001096. [Google Scholar]
  134. McMaster Health Forum, 2015. Health Systems Evidence. Available at: www.healthsystemsevidence.org. Accessed February 2, 2015. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 22 Jul 2015
  • Accepted : 04 Jan 2016
  • Published online : 04 May 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error