1921
Volume 94, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

We report baseline findings before the implementation of a 4-year intervention trial designed to assess the impact of three different school-based treatment schedules with praziquantel to sustain the control of intestinal schistosomiasis. The baseline survey was conducted in 75 schools of western Côte d'Ivoire previously identified with moderate endemicity (prevalence: 10–24% in children aged 13–14 years). Three stool samples collected over consecutive days were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears each. A questionnaire was administered to collect village-specific information that is relevant for schistosomiasis transmission. Overall, 4,953 first graders (aged 5–8 years) and 7,011 school children (aged 9–12 years) had complete parasitologic data. The overall prevalence of was 5.4% among first graders and 22.1% in 9- to 12-year-old children. Open defecation was practiced in all villages. The current baseline findings will be important to better understand the dynamics of prevalence and intensity over the course of this trial that might be governed by village characteristics and specific treatment interventions.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0530
2016-02-03
2017-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/94/2/352.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0530&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Murray CJL, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, Michaud C, Ezzati M, Shibuya K, Salomon JA, Abdalla S, Aboyans V, Abraham J, Ackerman I, Aggarwal R, Ahn SY, Ali MK, Alvarado M, Anderson HR, Anderson LM, Andrews KG, Atkinson C, Baddour LM, Bahalim AN, Barker-Collo S, Barrero LH, Bartels DH, Basáñez MG, Baxter A, Bell ML, Benjamin EJ, Bennett D, Bernabé E, Bhalla K, Bhandari B, Bikbov B, Bin Abdulhak A, Birbeck G, Black JA, Blencowe H, Blore JD, Blyth F, Bolliger I, Bonaventure A, Boufous SA, Bourne R, Boussinesq M, Braithwaite T, Brayne C, Bridgett L, Brooker S, Brooks P, Brugha TS, Bryan-Hancock C, Bucello C, Buchbinder R, Buckle G, Budke CM, Burch M, Burney P, Burstein R, Calabria B, Campbell B, Canter CE, Carabin H, Carapetis J, Carmona L, Cella C, Charlson F, Chen HL, Cheng ATA, Chou D, Chugh SS, Coffeng LE, Colan SD, Colquhoun S, Colson KE, Condon J, Connor MD, Cooper LT, Corriere M, Cortinovis M, De Vaccaro KC, Couser W, Cowie BC, Criqui MH, Cross M, Dabhadkar KC, Dahiya M, Dahodwala N, Damsere-Derry J, Danaei G, Davis A, De Leo D, Degenhardt L, Dellavalle R, Delossantos A, Denenberg J, Derrett S, Des Jarlais DC, Dharmaratne SD, Dherani M, Diaz-Torne C, Dolk H, Dorsey ER, Driscoll T, Duber H, Ebel B, Edmond K, Elbaz A, Ali SE, Erskine H, Erwin PJ, Espindola P, Ewoigbokhan SE, Farzadfar F, Feigin V, Felson DT, Ferrari A, Ferri CP, Fèvre EM, Finucane MM, Flaxman S, Flood L, Foreman K, Forouzanfar MH, Fowkes FGR, Fransen M, Freeman MK, Gabbe BJ, Gabriel SE, Gakidou E, Ganatra HA, Garcia B, Gaspari F, Gillum RF, Gmel G, Gonzalez-Medina D, Gosselin R, Grainger R, Grant B, Groeger J, Guillemin F, Gunnell D, Gupta R, Haagsma J, Hagan H, Halasa YA, Hall W, Haring D, Haro JM, Harrison JE, Havmoeller R, Hay RJ, Higashi H, Hill C, Hoen B, Hoffman H, Hotez PJ, Hoy D, Huang JJ, Ibeanusi SE, Jacobsen KH, James SL, Jarvis D, Jasrasaria R, Jayaraman S, Johns N, Jonas JB, Karthikeyan G, Kassebaum N, Kawakami N, Keren A, Khoo J-P, King CH, Knowlton LM, Kobusingye O, Koranteng A, Krishnamurthi R, Laden F, Lalloo R, Laslett LL, Lathlean T, Leasher JL, Lee YY, Leigh J, Levinson D, Lim SS, Limb E, Lin JK, Lipnick M, Lipshultz SE, Liu W, Loane M, Ohno SL, Lyons R, Mabweijano J, MacIntyre MF, Malekzadeh R, Mallinger L, Manivannan S, Marcenes W, March L, Margolis DJ, Marks GB, Marks R, Matsumori A, Matzopoulos R, Mayosi BM, McAnulty JH, McDermott MM, McGill N, McGrath J, Medina-Mora ME, Meltzer M, Memish ZA, Mensah GA, Merriman TR, Meyer A-C, Miglioli V, Miller M, Miller TR, Mitchell PB, Mock C, Mocumbi AO, Moffitt TE, Mokdad AA, Monasta L, Montico M, Moradi-Lakeh M, Moran A, Morawska L, Mori R, Murdoch ME, Mwaniki MK, Naidoo K, Nair MN, Naldi L, Narayan KMV, Nelson PK, Nelson RG, Nevitt MC, Newton CR, Nolte S, Norman P, Norman R, O'Donnell M, O'Hanlon S, Olives C, Omer SB, Ortblad K, Osborne R, Ozgediz D, Page A, Pahari B, Pandian JD, Rivero AP, Patten SB, Pearce N, Padilla RP, Perez-Ruiz F, Perico N, Pesudovs K, Phillips D, Phillips MR, Pierce K, Pion S, Polanczyk GV, Polinder S, Pope CA, III Popova S, Porrini E, Pourmalek F, Prince M, Pullan RL, Ramaiah KD, Ranganathan D, Razavi H, Regan M, Rehm JT, Rein DB, Remuzzi G, Richardson K, Rivara FP, Roberts T, Robinson C, De Leòn FR, Ronfani L, Room R, Rosenfeld LC, Rushton L, Sacco RL, Saha S, Sampson U, Sanchez-Riera L, Sanman E, Schwebel DC, Scott JG, Segui-Gomez M, Shahraz S, Shepard DS, Shin H, Shivakoti R, Silberberg D, Singh D, Singh GM, Singh JA, Singleton J, Sleet DA, Sliwa K, Smith E, Smith JL, Stapelberg NJC, Steer A, Steiner T, Stolk WA, Stovner LJ, Sudfeld C, Syed S, Tamburlini G, Tavakkoli M, Taylor HR, Taylor JA, Taylor WJ, Thomas B, Thomson WM, Thurston GD, Tleyjeh IM, Tonelli M, Towbin JA, Truelsen T, Tsilimbaris MK, Ubeda C, Undurraga EA, van der Werf MJ, van Os J, Vavilala MS, Venketasubramanian N, Wang M, Wang W, Watt K, Weatherall DJ, Weinstock MA, Weintraub R, Weisskopf MG, Weissman MM, White RA, Whiteford H, Wiebe N, Wiersma ST, Wilkinson JD, Williams HC, Williams SRM, Witt E, Wolfe F, Woolf AD, Wulf S, Yeh P-H, Zaidi AKM, Zheng Z-J, Zonies D, Lopez AD, , 2012. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet 380: 21972223.[Crossref]
  2. Hotez PJ, Alvarado M, Basáñez MG, Bolliger I, Bourne R, Boussinesq M, Brooker SJ, Brown AS, Buckle G, Budke CM, Carabin H, Coffeng LE, Fèvre EM, Fürst T, Halasa YA, Jasrasaria R, Johns NE, Keiser J, King CH, Lozano R, Murdoch ME, O'Hanlon S, Pion SDS, Pullan RL, Ramaiah KD, Roberts T, Shepard DS, Smith JL, Stolk WA, Undurraga EA, Utzinger J, Wang M, Murray CJL, Naghavi M, , 2014. The Global Burden of Disease study 2010: interpretation and implications for the neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2865.[Crossref]
  3. WHO, 2015. Schistosomiasis: number of people treated worldwide in 2013. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 90: 2532.
  4. van der Werf MJ, de Vlas SJ, Brooker S, Looman CW, Nagelkerke NJD, Habbema JDF, Engels D, , 2003. Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Trop 86: 125139.[Crossref]
  5. WHO, 1985. The control of schistosomiasis. Report of a WHO expert committee. WHO Tech Rep Ser 728: 1114.
  6. WHO, 2002. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: report of a WHO expert committee. WHO Tech Rep Ser 912: 157.
  7. WHO, 2013. Schistosomiasis: Progress Report 2001–2011 and Strategic Plan 2012–2020. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  8. WHO, 2012. Accelerating Work to Overcome the Global Impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Roadmap for Implementation. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/NTD_RoadMap_2012_Fullversion.pdf. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  9. Assaré RK, Knopp S, N'Guessan NA, Yapi A, Tian-Bi Y-NT, Yao PK, Coulibaly JT, Ouattara M, Meïté A, Fenwick A, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, , 2014. Sustaining control of schistosomiasis mansoni in moderate endemicity areas in western Côte d'Ivoire: a SCORE study protocol. BMC Public Health 14: 1290.[Crossref]
  10. Colley DG, , 2014. Morbidity control of schistosomiasis by mass drug administration: how can we do it best and what will it take to move on to elimination? Trop Med Health 42: 2532.[Crossref]
  11. Utzinger J, Zhou XN, Chen MG, Bergquist R, , 2005. Conquering schistosomiasis in China: the long march. Acta Trop 96: 6996.[Crossref]
  12. Bergquist R, , 2008. A century of schistosomiasis research. Acta Trop 108: 6568.[Crossref]
  13. Clements ACA, Bosqué-Oliva E, Sacko M, Landouré A, Dembélé R, Traoré M, Coulibaly G, Gabrielli AF, Fenwick A, Brooker S, , 2009. A comparative study of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis in Mali in 1984–1989 and 2004–2006. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e431.[Crossref]
  14. Danso-Appiah A, de Vlas SJ, , 2002. Interpreting low praziquantel cure rates of Schistosoma mansoni infections in Senegal. Trends Parasitol 18: 125129.[Crossref]
  15. Steinmann P, Keiser J, Bos R, Tanner M, Utzinger J, , 2006. Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infect Dis 6: 411425.[Crossref]
  16. Knopp S, Person B, Ame SM, Mohammed KA, Ali SM, Khamis IS, Rabone M, Allan F, Gouvras A, Blair L, Fenwick A, Utzinger J, Rollinson D, , 2013. Elimination of schistosomiasis transmission in Zanzibar: baseline findings before the onset of a randomized intervention trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2474.[Crossref]
  17. WHO, 2012. Schistosomiasis: population requiring preventive chemotherapy and number of people treated in 2010. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 87: 3744.
  18. Grimes JET, Croll D, Harrison WE, Utzinger J, Freeman MC, Templeton MR, , 2014. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3296.[Crossref]
  19. Montresor A, Engels D, Ramsan M, Foum A, Savioli L, , 2002. Field test of the ‘dose pole’ for praziquantel in Zanzibar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96: 323324.[Crossref]
  20. Doumenge J, Mott K, Cheung C, Villenave D, Chapuis O, Perrin M, Reaud-Thomas G, , 1987. Atlas of the Global Distribution of Schistosomiasis. Bordeaux, France: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux.
  21. Utzinger J, N'Goran EK, Ossey YA, Booth M, Traoré M, Lohourignon KL, Allangba A, Ahiba LA, Tanner M, Lengeler C, , 2000. Rapid screening for Schistosoma mansoni in western Côte d'Ivoire using a simple school questionnaire. Bull World Health Organ 78: 389398.
  22. Fournet F, N'Guessan NA, Cadot E, , 2004. Gestion de l'espace et schistosomose urinaire à Daloa (Côte d'Ivoire). Bull Soc Pathol Exot 97: 3336.
  23. Raso G, Matthys B, N'Goran EK, Tanner M, Vounatsou P, Utzinger J, , 2005. Spatial risk prediction and mapping of Schistosoma mansoni infections among school children living in western Côte d'Ivoire. Parasitology 131: 97108.[Crossref]
  24. Chammartin F, Houngbedji CA, Hürlimann E, Yapi RB, Silué KD, Soro G, Kouamé FN, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, Raso G, Vounatsou P, , 2014. Bayesian risk mapping and model-based estimation of Schistosoma haematobium-Schistosoma mansoni co-distribution in Côte d'Ivoire. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3407.[Crossref]
  25. Cadot E, Fournet F, Traoré S, N'Guessan N, Hervouët JP, , 1998. Approche géographique de la schistosomiase urinaire dans une ville moyenne africaine, Daloa (Côte d'Ivoire). Cahiers Santé 8: 447453.
  26. Matthys B, Tschannen AB, Tian-Bi NT, Comoé H, Diabaté S, Traoré M, Vounatsou P, Raso G, Gosoniu L, Tanner M, Cissé G, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, , 2007. Risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm in urban farming communities in western Côte d'Ivoire. Trop Med Int Health 12: 709723.[Crossref]
  27. Yapi YG, Touré M, Boka MO, Tia E, Boby MAO, , 2014. Dynamique de transmission des schistosomes par Biomphalaria pfeifferi dans la région de Man, Côte d'Ivoire. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 107: 317322.[Crossref]
  28. Yapi YG, Touré M, Boka OM, Tia E, Boby OA-M, Kadjo KA, , 2014. Dynamique des populations de Biomphalaria pfeifferi et de Bulinus globosus en zone d'endémie schistosomienne en Côte d'Ivoire. Eur Sci J 17: 339363.
  29. Assaré RK, Lai YS, Yapi A, Tian-Bi YNT, Ouattara M, Yao PK, Knopp S, Vounatsou P, Utzinger J, N'Goran EK, , 2015. The spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in four regions of western Côte d'Ivoire. Geospat Health 345: 6979.
  30. Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J, , 1972. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo 14: 397400.
  31. Utzinger J, Becker SL, van Lieshout L, van Dam GJ, Knopp S, , 2015. New diagnostic tools in schistosomiasis. Clin Microbiol Infect 21: 529542.[Crossref]
  32. Woolhouse MEJ, , 1998. Patterns in parasite epidemiology: the peak shift. Parasitol Today 14: 428434.[Crossref]
  33. Utzinger J, Booth M, N'Goran EK, Müller I, Tanner M, Lengeler C, , 2001. Relative contribution of day-to-day and intra-specimen variation in faecal egg counts of Schistosoma mansoni before and after treatment with praziquantel. Parasitology 122: 537544.[Crossref]
  34. Booth M, Vounatsou P, N'Goran EK, Tanner M, Utzinger J, , 2003. The influence of sampling effort and the performance of the Kato-Katz technique in diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm co-infections in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Parasitology 127: 525531.[Crossref]
  35. Enk MJ, Lima AC, Drummond SC, Schall VT, Coelho PM, , 2008. The effect of the number of stool samples on the observed prevalence and the infection intensity with Schistosoma mansoni among a population in an area of low transmission. Acta Trop 108: 222228.[Crossref]
  36. Coulibaly JT, Fürst T, Silué KD, Knopp S, Hauri D, Ouattara M, Utzinger J, N'Goran EK, , 2012. Intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire: effect of diagnostic approach and implications for control. Parasit Vectors 5: 135.[Crossref]
  37. Sayasone S, Utzinger J, Akkhavong K, Odermatt P, , 2015. Repeated stool sampling and use of multiple techniques enhance the sensitivity of helminth diagnosis: a cross-sectional survey in southern Lao People's Democratic Republic. Acta Trop 141: 315321.[Crossref]
  38. Utzinger J, N'Goran EK, Tanner M, Lengeler C, , 2000. Simple anamnestic questions and recalled water-contact patterns for self-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection among school children in western Côte d'Ivoire. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62: 649655.
  39. Sow S, Polman K, Vereecken K, Vercruysse J, Gryseels B, de Vlas SJ, , 2008. The role of hygienic bathing after defecation in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102: 542547.[Crossref]
  40. Odiere MR, Rawago FO, Ombok M, Secor WE, Karanja DM, Mwinzi PN, Lammie PJ, Won K, , 2012. High prevalence of schistosomiasis in Mbita and its adjacent islands of Lake Victoria, western Kenya. Parasit Vectors 5: 278.[Crossref]
  41. Grimes JET, Croll D, Harrison WE, Utzinger J, Freeman MC, Templeton MR, , 2015. The roles of water, sanitation and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review. Parasit Vectors 8: 156.[Crossref]
  42. Walz Y, Wegmann M, Dech S, Raso G, Utzinger J, , 2015. Risk profiling of schistosomiasis using remote sensing: approaches, challenges and outlook. Parasit Vectors 8: 163.[Crossref]
  43. Raso G, Utzinger J, Silué KD, Ouattara M, Yapi A, Toty A, Matthys B, Vounatsou P, Tanner M, N'Goran EK, , 2005. Disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to health care among poorer and less poor school children of rural Côte d'Ivoire. Trop Med Int Health 10: 4257.[Crossref]
  44. Reta B, Erko B, , 2013. Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel in the treatment for Schistosoma mansoni infection in school children in Senbete Town, northeastern Ethiopia. Trop Med Int Health 18: 13381343.[Crossref]
  45. Yapi RB, Hürlimann E, Houngbedji CA, Ndri PB, Silué KD, Soro G, Kouamé FN, Vounatsou P, Fürst T, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, Raso G, , 2014. Infection and co-infection with helminths and Plasmodium among school children in Côte d'Ivoire: results from a national cross-sectional survey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2913.[Crossref]
  46. Rudge JW, Stothard JR, Basáñez MG, Mgeni AF, Khamis IS, Khamis AN, Rollinson D, , 2008. Micro-epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis in Zanzibar: local risk factors associated with distribution of infections among school children and relevance for control. Acta Trop 105: 4554.[Crossref]
  47. Keiser J, N'Goran EK, Singer BH, Lengeler C, Tanner M, Utzinger J, , 2002. Association between Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections among schoolchildren in Côte d'Ivoire. Acta Trop 84: 3141.[Crossref]
  48. Martin LK, Beaver PC, , 1968. Evaluation of Kato thick-smear technique for quantitative diagnosis of helminth infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17: 382391.
  49. Yapi YG, Briet OJT, Diabaté S, Vounatsou P, Akodo E, Tanner M, Teuscher T, , 2005. Rice irrigation and schistosomiasis in savannah and forest areas of Côte d'Ivoire. Acta Trop 93: 201211.[Crossref]
  50. Odogwu SE, Ramamurthy NK, Kabatereine NB, Kazibwe F, Tukahebwa E, Webster JP, Fenwick A, Stothard JR, , 2006. Schistosoma mansoni in infants (aged < 3 years) along the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100: 315326.[Crossref]
  51. Mohammed S, Tadesse D, Zewdneh T, , 2015. Prevalence of intestinal helminths and associated risk factors in rural school children in Were-Abaye sub district, Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. Acta Parasitol Global 6: 2935.
  52. Nalugwa A, Olsen A, Tukahebwa ME, Nuwaha F, , 2015. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda. Acta Trop 142: 115121.[Crossref]
  53. Schmidlin T, Hürlimann E, Silué KD, Yapi RB, Houngbedji C, Kouadio BA, Acka-Douabélé CA, Kouassi D, Ouattara M, Zouzou F, Bonfoh B, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, Raso G, , 2013. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire. PLoS One 8: e65722.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0530
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0530
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 18 Jul 2015
  • Accepted : 19 Oct 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error