Volume 94, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



At present, proof of immunization against diseases such as yellow fever is required at some international borders in concordance with the International Health Regulations. The current standard, the International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP), has limitations as a paper record including the possibility of being illegible, misplaced, or damaged. We believe that a complementary, digital record would offer advantages to public health and travelers alike. These include enhanced availability and reliability, potential to include lot specific information, and integration with immunization information systems. Challenges exist in implementation, particularly pertaining to verification at border crossings. We describe a potential course for the development and implementation of a digital ICVP record.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Wilder-Smith A, Hill DR, Freedman DO, , 2008. The revised International Health Regulations (2005): impact on yellow fever vaccination in clinical practice. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 359360. [Google Scholar]
  2. Wilson K, Atkinson KM, Deeks SL, Crowcroft NS, , 2015. Improving vaccine registries through mobile technologies. A vision for mobile enhanced Immunization information systems. J Am Med Inform Assoc: pii ocv055. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26078414. [Google Scholar]
  3. Johansen K, Lopalco PL, Giesecke J, , 2012. Immunisation registers—important for vaccinated individuals, vaccinators and public health. Euro Surveill 17: 24. [Google Scholar]
  4. World Health Organization, 2006. Annex 7: Requirements Concerning Vaccination or Prophylaxis for Specific Diseases. International Health Regulations 2005. Geneva: WHO, 54. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43883/1/9789241580410_eng.pdf. [Google Scholar]
  5. Wilson K, von Tigerstrom B, McDougall C, , 2008. Protecting global health security through the International Health Regulations: requirements and challenges. CMAJ 179: 4448.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Wilson K, McDougall C, Fidler DP, Lazar H, , 2008. Strategies for implementing the new International Health Regulations in federal countries. Bull World Health Organ 86: 215220.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. World Health Organization, 2006. International Health Regulations 2005. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43883/1/9789241580410_eng.pdf. [Google Scholar]
  8. Wilson K, Brownstein JS, Fidler DP, , 2010. Strengthening the International Health Regulations: lessons from the H1N1 pandemic. Health Policy Plan 25: 505509.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Eurosurveillance Editorial Team, 2014. Note from the editors: WHO declares international spread of wild poliovirus a public health emergency of international concern. Euro Surveill 19: pii 20798. [Google Scholar]
  10. World Health Organization, 2015. Statement on the 4th IHR Emergency Committee Meeting Regarding the International Spread of Wild Poliovirus. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2015/polio-27-february-2015/en/. [Google Scholar]
  11. World Health Organization, 2006. Annex 6: Vaccination, Prophylaxis and Related Certificates, Model International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis. International Health Regulations 2005. Geneva: WHO, 5253. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43883/1/9789241580410_eng.pdf. [Google Scholar]
  12. Anema A, Druyts E, Hollmeyer HG, Hardiman MC, Wilson K, , 2012. Descriptive review and evaluation of the functioning of the International Health Regulations (IHR) Annex 2. Global Health 8: 1.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Mamiit A, , 2014. Mobile Devices Now Outnumber Humans: Report. Tech Times. Available at: http://www.techtimes.com/articles/17431/20141008/mobile-devices-now-outnumber-humans-report.htm. [Google Scholar]
  14. Park LG, Howie-Esquivel J, Dracup K, , 2014. A quantitative systematic review of the efficacy of mobile phone interventions to improve medication adherence. J Adv Nurs 70: 19321953.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Martinez-Perez B, de la Torre-Diez I, Lopez-Coronado M, Sainz-De-Abajo B, , 2014. Comparison of mobile apps for the leading causes of death among different income zones: a review of the literature and app stores. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2: e1.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Gurol-Urganci I, de Jongh T, Vodopivec-Jamsek V, Atun R, Car J, , 2013. Mobile phone messaging reminders for attendance at healthcare appointments. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5: CD007458. [Google Scholar]
  17. Leeb A, Regan AK, Peters IJ, Leeb C, Leeb G, Effler PV, , 2014. Using automated text messages to monitor adverse events following immunisation in general practice. Med J Aust 200: 416418.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Regan AK, Blyth CC, Effler PV, , 2013. Using SMS technology to verify the safety of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine for pregnant women in real time. Med J Aust 199: 744746.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Wilson K, Atkinson KM, Westeinde J, , 2015. Apps for immunization: leveraging mobile devices to place the individual at the center of care. Hum Vaccin Immunother 11: 23952399.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Huston JE, Mekaru SR, Kluberg S, Brownstein JS, , 2015. Searching the Web for influenza vaccines: HealthMap Vaccine Finder. Am J Public Health 105: e134e139.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Pereira JA, Quach S, Hamid JS, Quan SD, Diniz AJ, Van Exan R, Malawski J, Finkelstein M, Samanani S, Kwong JC, Public Health Agency of Canada/Canadian Institutes of Health Research Influenza Research Network (PCIRN) Program Delivery and Evaluation Group, , 2013. The integration of barcode scanning technology into Canadian public health immunization settings. Vaccine 32: 27482755.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Wilson K, Atkinson KM, Penney G, , 2015. Development and release of a national immunization app for Canada (ImmunizeCA). Vaccine 33: 16291632.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Jul 2015
  • Accepted : 02 Nov 2015
  • Published online : 02 Mar 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error