Volume 93, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper () in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.


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  • Received : 15 Jun 2015
  • Accepted : 18 Jul 2015
  • Published online : 04 Nov 2015

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