Volume 94, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



A Nokia Lumia 1020 cellular phone (Microsoft Corp., Auckland, New Zealand) was configured to image the ova of converged into a single field of view but on different focal planes. The phone was programmed to acquire images at different distances and, using public domain computer software, composite images were created that brought all the eggs into sharp focus. This proof of concept informs a framework for field-deployable, point of care monitoring of soil-transmitted helminths.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, Hotez PJ, , 2006. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet 367: 15211532.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Hotez PJ, , 2008. Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and Their Impact on Global Health and Development. Washington, DC: ASM Press. [Google Scholar]
  3. Hotez PJ, Brindley PJ, Bethony JM, King CH, Pearce EJ, Jacobson J, , 2008. Helminth infections: the great neglected tropical diseases. J Clin Invest 118: 13111321.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Bergquist R, Johansen MV, Utzinger J, , 2009. Diagnostic dilemmas in helminthology: what tools to use and when? Trends Parasitol 25: 151156.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. McCarthy JS, Lustigman S, Yang GJ, Barakat RM, Garcia HH, Sripa B, Willingham AL, Prichard RK, Basanez MG, , 2012. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: diagnostics for control and elimination programmes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1601.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Petti CA, Polage CR, Quinn TC, Ronald AR, Sande MA, , 2006. Laboratory medicine in Africa: a barrier to effective health care. Clin Infect Dis 42: 377382.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J, , 1972. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in Schistosomiasis mansoni . Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 14: 397400. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ash LR, Orihel TC, Savioli L, , 1994. Bench Aids for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  9. Ash LR, Orihel TC, , 2007. Ash & Orihel's Atlas of Human Parasitology. Chicago, IL: American Society of Clinical Pathologists Press. [Google Scholar]
  10. Thienpont D, Rochette F, Vanparijs OFJ, , 1979. Diagnosing Helminthiasis through Coprological Examination. Beerse, Belgium: Janssen Research Foundation. [Google Scholar]
  11. Cringoli G, Rinaldi L, Veneziano V, Capelli G, Scala A, , 2004. The influence of flotation solution, sample dilution and the choice of McMaster slide area (volume) on the reliability of the McMaster technique in estimating the faecal egg counts of gastrointestinal strongyles and Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep. Vet Parasitol 123: 121131.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. MAFF, 1986. Manual of Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory Techniques. London, United Kingdom: Her Majesty's Stationary Office. [Google Scholar]
  13. Albonico M, Ame SM, Vercruysse J, Levecke B, , 2012. Comparison of the Kato–Katz thick smear and McMaster egg counting techniques for monitoring drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminths in schoolchildren on Pemba Island, Tanzania. R Soc Trop Med Hyg 106: 199201.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Levecke B, Behnke JM, Ajjampur SSR, Albonico M, Ame SM, Charlier J, Geiger SM, Hoa NTV, Ngassam RIK, Kotze AC, McCarthy JS, Montresor A, Periago MV, Roy S, Tchuente LAT, Thach DTC, Vercruysse J, , 2011. A comparison of the sensitivity and fecal egg counts of the McMaster egg counting and Kato–Katz thick smear methods for soil-transmitted helminths. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1201.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Presland SL, Morgan ER, Coles GC, , 2005. Counting nematode eggs in equine faecal samples. Vet Rec 156: 208210.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Cringoli G, Rinaldi L, Maurelli MP, Utzinger J, , 2010. FLOTAC: new multivalent techniques for qualitative and quantitative copromicroscopic diagnosis of parasites in animals and humans. Nat Protoc 5: 503515.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Speich B, Ali SM, Ame SM, Albonico M, Utzinger J, Keiser J, , 2015. Quality control in the diagnosis of Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides using the Kato–Katz technique: experience from three randomised controlled trials. Parasit Vectors 8: 82.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Cooke IR, Laing CJ, White LV, Wakes SJ, Sowerby SJ, , 2015. Analysis of menisci formed on cones for single field of view parasite egg microscopy. J Microsc 257: 133141.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Sowerby SJ, Mirams GJ, Hill PC, Paulin MG, , 2011. An axisymmetric meniscus converges particles for microscopy. J Microsc 244: 230234.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Sowerby SJ, , 2015. Apparatus for the detection of particles in fluid. US Patent 8,961,907.
  21. Bogoch II, Andrews JR, Speich B, Utzinger J, Ame SM, Ali SM, Keiser J, , 2013. Short report: mobile phone microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections: a proof-of concept study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 626629.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Linder E, Grote A, Varjo S, Linder N, Lebbad M, Lundin M, Diwan V, Hannuksela J, Lundin J, , 2013. On-chip imaging of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine for diagnosis by computer vision. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2547.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Switz NA, D'Ambrosio MV, Fletcher DA, , 2014. Low-cost mobile phone microscopy with a reversed mobile phone camera lens. PLoS One 9: e95330.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. White LV, Cooke IR, Wakes SJ, Sowerby SJ, , 2013. Quantitative particle microscopy in self-metered fluids. J Microsc 250: 159165.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Murphy DB, , 2002. Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging. New York, NY: Wiley. [Google Scholar]
  26. Forster B, Van de Ville D, Berent J, Sage D, Unser M, , 2004. Complex wavelets for extended depth-of-field: a new method for the fusion of multichannel microscopy images. Microsc Res Tech 65: 3342.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Hein LRD, de Oliveira JA, de Campos KA, Caltabiano PCRD, , 2012. Extended depth from focus reconstruction using NIH ImageJ plugins: quality and resolution of elevation maps. Microsc Res Tech 75: 15931607.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Rasband WS, , 1997–2009. ImageJ. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health. Available at: http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/. [Google Scholar]
  29. Graff JP, Wu MLC, , 2014. The Nokia Lumia 1020 smartphone as a 41-megapixel photomicroscope. Histopathology 64: 10441045.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Knopp S, Mgeni AF, Khamis IS, Steinmann P, Stothard JR, Rollinson D, Marti H, Utzinger J, , 2008. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths in the era of preventive chemotherapy: effect of multiple stool sampling and use of different diagnostic techniques. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e331.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Jun 2015
  • Accepted : 30 Sep 2015
  • Published online : 06 Jan 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error