1921
Volume 94, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

The development of good quality and affordable ultrasound machines has led to the establishment and implementation of numerous point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) protocols in various medical disciplines. POCUS for major infectious diseases endemic in tropical regions has received less attention, despite its likely even more pronounced benefit for populations with limited access to imaging infrastructure. Focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated TB (FASH) and echinococcosis (FASE) are the only two POCUS protocols for tropical infectious diseases, which have been formally investigated and which have been implemented in routine patient care today. This review collates the available evidence for FASH and FASE, and discusses sonographic experiences reported for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, amebic liver abscess, and visceral leishmaniasis. Potential POCUS protocols are suggested and technical as well as training aspects in the context of resource-limited settings are reviewed. Using the focused approach for tropical infectious diseases will make ultrasound diagnosis available to patients who would otherwise have very limited or no access to medical imaging.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0421
2016-01-06
2017-09-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/94/1/8.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0421&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Richter J, Hatz C, Haussinger D, , 2003. Ultrasound in tropical and parasitic diseases. Lancet 362 900902.[Crossref]
  2. Moore CL, Copel JA, , 2011. Point-of-care ultrasonography. N Engl J Med 364: 749757.[Crossref]
  3. Hanscheid T, Rebelo M, Grobusch MP, , 2014. Point-of-care tests: where is the point? Lancet 14: 922.[Crossref]
  4. Ma OJ, Mateer JR, Ogata M, Kefer MP, Wittmann D, Aprahamian C, , 1995. Prospective analysis of a rapid trauma ultrasound examination performed by emergency physicians. J Trauma 38: 879885.[Crossref]
  5. Mateer J, Plummer D, Heller M, Olson D, Jehle D, Overton D, Gussow L, , 1994. Model curriculum for physician training in emergency ultrasonography. Ann Emerg Med 23: 95102.[Crossref]
  6. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, 2014. AIUM practice guideline for the performance of the focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) examination. J Ultrasound Med 33: 20472056.[Crossref]
  7. Mohammad A, Hefny AF, Abu-Zidan FM, , 2014. Focused Assessment Sonography for Trauma (FAST) training: a systematic review. World J Surg 38: 10091018.[Crossref]
  8. Brunetti E, Farrar J, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, , 2013. Ultrasound in tropical medicine. , eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases, 23rd edition. Endinburgh, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 6067.
  9. Shah S, Noble VE, Umulisa I, Dushimiyimana JM, Bukhman G, Mukherjee J, Rich M, Epino H, , 2008. Development of an ultrasound training curriculum in a limited resource international setting: successes and challenges of ultrasound training in rural Rwanda. Int J Emerg Med 1: 193196.[Crossref]
  10. Maru DS, Schwarz R, Jason A, Basu S, Sharma A, Moore C, , 2010. Turning a blind eye: the mobilization of radiology services in resource-poor regions. Global Health 6: 18.[Crossref]
  11. Heller T, Wallrauch C, Goblirsch S, Brunetti E, , 2012. Focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated tuberculosis (FASH): a short protocol and a pictorial review. Crit Ultrasound J 4: 21.[Crossref]
  12. Janssen S, Grobusch MP, Heller T, , 2013. ‘Remote FASH’ tele-sonography—a novel tool to assist diagnosing HIV-associated extrapulmonary tuberculosis in remote areas. Acta Trop 127: 5355.[Crossref]
  13. Heller T, Goblirsch S, Bahlas S, Ahmed M, Giordani MT, Wallrauch C, Brunetti E, , 2013. Diagnostic value of FASH ultrasound and chest X-ray in HIV-co-infected patients with abdominal tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 17: 342344.[Crossref]
  14. Heller T, Wallrauch C, Brunetti E, Giordani MT, , 2014. Changes of FASH ultrasound findings in TB-HIV patients during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 18: 837839.[Crossref]
  15. van Hoving DJ, Lamprecht HH, Stander M, Vallabh K, Fredericks D, Louw P, Muller M, Malan JJ, , 2013. Adequacy of the emergency point-of-care ultrasound core curriculum for the local burden of disease in South Africa. Emerg Med J 30: 312315.[Crossref]
  16. Belard S, Heller T, Grobusch MP, Zar HJ, , 2014. Point-of-care ultrasound: a simple protocol to improve diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Pediatr Radiol 44: 679680.[Crossref]
  17. WHO, 2014. Global Tuberculosis Report 2014. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/137094/1/9789241564809_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed May 29, 2015.
  18. von Reyn CF, Kimambo S, Mtei L, Arbeit RD, Maro I, Bakari M, Matee M, Lahey T, Adams LV, Black W, Mackenzie T, Lyimo J, Tvaroha S, Waddell R, Kreiswirth B, Horsburgh CR, Pallangyo K, , 2011. Disseminated tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection: ineffective immunity, polyclonal disease and high mortality. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15: 10871092.[Crossref]
  19. WHO, 2006. Improving the Diagnosis and Treatment of Smear-Negative Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults and Adolescents: Recommendations for HIV-Prevalent and Resource-Constrained Settings. Available at: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/2006/tbhiv_recommendations.pdf. Accessed May 17, 2015.
  20. Luzze H, Elliott AM, Joloba ML, Odida M, Oweka-Onyee J, Nakiyingi J, Quigley M, Hirsch C, Mugerwa RD, Okwera A, Johnson JL, , 2001. Evaluation of suspected tuberculous pleurisy: clinical and diagnostic findings in HIV-1-positive and HIV-negative adults in Uganda. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 5: 746753.
  21. Reuter H, Burgess LJ, Doubell AF, , 2005. Epidemiology of pericardial effusions at a large academic hospital in South Africa. Epidemiol Infect 133: 393399.[Crossref]
  22. Brindle HE, Allain TJ, Kampondeni S, Kayange N, Faragher B, Bates I, Joekes E, , 2013. Utilization of ultrasound in medical inpatients in Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 107: 405410.[Crossref]
  23. Heller T, Lessells RJ, Wallrauch C, Brunetti E, , 2010. Tuberculosis pericarditis with cardiac tamponade: management in the resource-limited setting. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 13111314.[Crossref]
  24. Giordani MT, Brunetti E, Binazzi R, Benedetti P, Stecca C, Goblirsch S, Heller T, , 2012. Extrapulmonary mycobacterial infections in a cohort of HIV-positive patients: ultrasound experience from Vicenza, Italy. Infection 41: 409414.[Crossref]
  25. Heller T, Wallrauch C, Lessells RJ, Goblirsch S, Brunetti E, , 2010. Short course for focused assessment with sonography for human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis: preliminary results in a rural setting in South Africa with high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 512515.[Crossref]
  26. Ma OJ, Mateer JR, , 1997. Trauma ultrasound examination versus chest radiography in the detection of hemothorax. Ann Emerg Med 29: 312315, discussion 315–316.[Crossref]
  27. Rozycki GS, Feliciano DV, Ochsner MG, Knudson MM, Hoyt DB, Davis F, Hammerman D, Figueredo V, Harviel JD, Han DC, Schmidt JA, , 1999. The role of ultrasound in patients with possible penetrating cardiac wounds: a prospective multicenter study. J Trauma 46: 543551, discussion 551–552.[Crossref]
  28. Heller T, Goblirsch S, Wallrauch C, Lessells R, Brunetti E, , 2010. Abdominal tuberculosis: sonographic diagnosis and treatment response in HIV-positive adults in rural South Africa. Int J Infect Dis 14 (Suppl 3): e108e112.[Crossref]
  29. Eckert J, Deplazes P, , 2004. Biological, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. Clin Microbiol Rev 17: 107135.[Crossref]
  30. Wahlers K, Menezes CN, Wong ML, Zeyhle E, Ahmed ME, Ocaido M, Stijnis C, Romig T, Kern P, Grobusch MP, , 2012. Cystic echinococcosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 12: 871880.[Crossref]
  31. Eckert J, Gemmell M, Meslin F-X, Pawlowski Z, , 2001. WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis in Humans and Animals: A Public Health Problem of Global Concern. Geneva, Switzerland: World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties) and World Health Organization. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2001/929044522X.pdf. Accessed May 17, 2015.
  32. Wahlers K, Menezes CN, Romig T, Kern P, Grobusch MP, , 2013. Cystic echinococcosis in South Africa: the worst yet to come? Acta Trop 128: 16.[Crossref]
  33. Stojkovic M, Rosenberger K, Kauczor HU, Junghanss T, Hosch W, , 2012. Diagnosing and staging of cystic echinococcosis: how do CT and MRI perform in comparison to ultrasound? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1880.[Crossref]
  34. Brunetti E, Kern P, Vuitton DA, , 2010. Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans. Acta Trop 114: 116.[Crossref]
  35. WHO-IWGE, 2003. International classification of ultrasound images in cystic echinococcosis for application in clinical and field epidemiological settings. Acta Trop 85: 253261.[Crossref]
  36. Del Carpio M, Mercapide CH, Salvitti JC, Uchiumi L, Sustercic J, Panomarenko H, Moguilensky J, Herrero E, Talmon G, Volpe M, Araya D, Mujica G, Calabro A, Mancini S, Chiosso C, Labanchi JL, Saad R, Goblirsch S, Brunetti E, Larrieu E, , 2012. Early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cystic echinococcosis in remote rural areas in Patagonia: impact of ultrasound training of non-specialists. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1444.[Crossref]
  37. Li T, Ito A, Pengcuo R, Sako Y, Chen X, Qiu D, Xiao N, Craig PS, , 2011. Post-treatment follow-up study of abdominal cystic echinococcosis in Tibetan communities of northwest Sichuan Province, China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1364.[Crossref]
  38. Elmahdi IE, Ali QM, Magzoub MM, Ibrahim AM, Saad MB, Romig T, , 2004. Cystic echinococcosis of livestock and humans in central Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98: 473479.[Crossref]
  39. Macpherson CN, Kachani M, Lyagoubi M, Berrada M, Shepherd M, Fields PF, El Hasnaoui M, , 2004. Cystic echinococcosis in the Berber of the Mid Atlas mountains, Morocco: new insights into the natural history of the disease in humans. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98: 481490.
  40. Muhtarov M, , 2014. First portable ultrasound based screening study in Bulgaria on the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in Kardzhali district. Trakia J Sci 12 (Suppl 1): 170174.
  41. Stojkovic M, Zwahlen M, Teggi A, Vutova K, Cretu CM, Virdone R, Nicolaidou P, Cobanoglu N, Junghanss T, , 2009. Treatment response of cystic echinococcosis to benzimidazoles: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e524.[Crossref]
  42. Rinaldi F, De Silvestri A, Tamarozzi F, Cattaneo F, Lissandrin R, Brunetti E, , 2014. Medical treatment versus “Watch and Wait” in the clinical management of CE3b echinococcal cysts of the liver. BMC Infect Dis 14: 492.[Crossref]
  43. Piccoli L, Tamarozzi F, Cattaneo F, Mariconti M, Filice C, Bruno A, Brunetti E, , 2014. Long-term sonographic and serological follow-up of inactive echinococcal cysts of the liver: hints for a “watch-and-wait” approach. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3057.[Crossref]
  44. Golemanov B, Grigorov N, Mitova R, Genov J, Vuchev D, Tamarozzi F, Brunetti E, , 2011. Efficacy and safety of PAIR for cystic echinococcosis: experience on a large series of patients from Bulgaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 4851.[Crossref]
  45. Stanley SL, Jr, 2003. Amoebiasis. Lancet 361: 10251034.[Crossref]
  46. Elia F, Campagnaro T, Salacone P, Casalis S, , 2011. Goal-directed ultrasound in a limited resource healthcare setting and developing country. Crit Ultrasound J 3: 5153.[Crossref]
  47. The Medical Letter, 2013. Drugs for parasitic infections. Treat Guidel Med Lett 11 (Suppl): e1e31.
  48. Stoopen M, Kimura K, , 1989. Amebiasis. The technology of the 80's. I. Ultrasound, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance: have they helped improve the diagnosis of hepatic abscess?. Rev Gastroenterol Mex 54: 167175.
  49. Mortele KJ, Segatto E, Ros PR, , 2004. The infected liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 24: 937955.[Crossref]
  50. Weinke T, Grobusch MP, Guthoff W, , 2002. Amebic liver abscess—rare need for percutaneous treatment modalities. Eur J Med Res 7: 2529.
  51. Heller T, Bélard S, Wallrauch C, Carretto E, Lissandrin R, Filice C, Brunetti E, , 2015. Patterns of hepatosplenic Brucella abscesses on cross-sectional imaging. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93: 761766.[Crossref]
  52. Kabaalioglu A, Ceken K, Alimoglu E, Saba R, Cubuk M, Arslan G, Apaydin A, , 2007. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis: sonographic and CT findings in 87 patients during the initial phase and long-term follow-up. Am J Roentgenol 189: 824828.[Crossref]
  53. Colley DG, Bustinduy AL, Secor WE, King CH, , 2014. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet 383: 22532264.[Crossref]
  54. WHO, 2015. Schistosomiasis. Available at: http://www.who.int/schistosomiasis/epidemiology/en/. Accessed May 29 2015.
  55. King CH, , 2006. Long-term outcomes of school-based treatment for control of urinary schistosomiasis: a review of experience in Coast Province, Kenya. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 101 (Suppl 1): 299306.[Crossref]
  56. Bustinduy AL, Parraga IM, Thomas CL, Mungai PL, Mutuku F, Muchiri EM, Kitron U, King CH, , 2013. Impact of polyparasitic infections on anemia and undernutrition among Kenyan children living in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 433440.[Crossref]
  57. Stothard JR, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Bustinduy A, Reinhard-Rupp J, , 2013. Schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool children: let them now be treated! Trends Parasitol 29: 197205.[Crossref]
  58. King CH, , 2002. Ultrasound monitoring of structural urinary tract disease in Schistosoma haematobium infection. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97 (Suppl 1): 149152.[Crossref]
  59. Richter J, Hatz C, Campagne G, Bergquist N, Jenkins J, , 2000. Ultrasound in Schistosomiasis—A Practical Guide to the Standardized Use of Ultrasonography for the Assessment of Schistosomiasis-Related Morbidity. Available at: http://www.who.int/tdr/publications/documents/ultrasound-schistosomiasis.pdf. Accessed May 17, 2015.
  60. Bonnard P, Boutouaba S, Diakhate I, Seck M, Dompnier JP, Riveau G, , 2011. Learning curve of vesico-urinary ultrasonography in Schistosoma haematobium infection with WHO practical guide: a “simple to learn” examination. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 10711074.[Crossref]
  61. Wagatsuma Y, Aryeetey ME, Sack DA, Morrow RH, Hatz C, Kojima S, , 1999. Resolution and resurgence of Schistosoma haematobium-induced pathology after community-based chemotherapy in Ghana, as detected by ultrasound. J Infect Dis 179: 15151522.[Crossref]
  62. WHO, 2015. Health Topics: Schistosomiasis. Available at: http://www.who.int/topics/schistosomiasis/en/. Accessed May 27, 2015.
  63. Bustinduy A, King CH, Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, , 2013. Schistosomiasis. , eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases, 23rd edition. Edinburgh, United Kingdom: Elsevier.
  64. el Scheich T, Holtfreter MC, Ekamp H, Singh DD, Mota R, Hatz C, Richter J, , 2014. The WHO ultrasonography protocol for assessing hepatic morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni. Acceptance and evolution over 12 years. Parasitol Res 113: 39153925.[Crossref]
  65. Ruiz-Guevara R, de Noya BA, Valero SK, Lecuna P, Garassini M, Noya O, , 2007. Clinical and ultrasound findings before and after praziquantel treatment among Venezuelan schistosomiasis patients. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 40: 505511.[Crossref]
  66. King CH, Magak P, Salam EA, Ouma JH, Kariuki HC, Blanton RE, , 2003. Measuring morbidity in schistosomiasis mansoni: relationship between image pattern, portal vein diameter and portal branch thickness in large-scale surveys using new WHO coding guidelines for ultrasound in schistosomiasis. Trop Med Int Health 8: 109117.[Crossref]
  67. Richter J, Correia Dacal AR, Vergetti Siqueira JG, Poggensee G, Mannsmann U, Deelder A, Feldmeier H, , 1998. Sonographic prediction of variceal bleeding in patients with liver fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni . Trop Med Int Health 3: 728735.[Crossref]
  68. Pinto-Silva RA, Queiroz LC, Azeredo LM, Silva LC, Lambertucci JR, , 2010. Ultrasound in schistosomiasis mansoni. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 105: 479484.[Crossref]
  69. Abdalla Balla E, Abdalla Abdo M, Ayad C, , 2013. Evaluation of caudate and right hepatic lobes ratio in patients with Schistosoma mansoni using ultrasound in Al-Fao area. Indian J Soc Res 4: 11.
  70. Gonzalez TD, Santos JEM, Sales DM, Takemoto K, Capobianco J, Brant PE, Colleoni R, Ahmed M, D'Ippolito G, , 2008. Ultrasonographic assessment of splenic siderotic nodules in schistosomal patients with portal hypertension. Radiol Bras 41: 6973.[Crossref]
  71. Mand S, Debrah A, Batsa L, Adjei O, Hoerauf A, , 2004. Reliable and frequent detection of adult Wuchereria bancrofti in Ghanaian women by ultrasonography. Trop Med Int Health 9: 11111114.[Crossref]
  72. DeVries CR, , 2002. The role of the urologist in the treatment and elimination of lymphatic filariasis worldwide. BJU Int 89 (Suppl 1): 3743.[Crossref]
  73. Mand S, Debrah AY, Klarmann U, Mante S, Kwarteng A, Batsa L, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Adjei O, Hoerauf A, , 2011. The role of ultrasonography in the differentiation of the various types of filaricele due to bancroftian filariasis. Acta Trop 120 (Suppl 1): S23S32.[Crossref]
  74. Debrah AY, Mand S, Specht S, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Batsa L, Pfarr K, Larbi J, Lawson B, Taylor M, Adjei O, Hoerauf A, , 2006. Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Pathog 2: e92.[Crossref]
  75. Debrah AY, Mand S, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Batsa L, Pfarr K, Lawson B, Taylor M, Adjei O, Hoerauf A, , 2009. Reduction in levels of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor-A and improvement in hydrocele patients by targeting endosymbiotic Wolbachia sp. in Wuchereria bancrofti with doxycycline. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 956963.
  76. Mand S, Debrah AY, Klarmann U, Batsa L, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Kwarteng A, Specht S, Belda-Domene A, Fimmers R, Taylor M, Adjei O, Hoerauf A, , 2012. Doxycycline improves filarial lymphedema independent of active filarial infection: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 55: 621630.[Crossref]
  77. WHO, 2002. Surgical Approaches to the Urogenital Manifestations of Lymphatic Filariasis. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_CDS_CPE_CEE_2002.33.pdf?ua=1. Accessed May 17, 2015.
  78. Guerin PJ, Olliaro P, Sundar S, Boelaert M, Croft SL, Desjeux P, Wasunna MK, Bryceson AD, , 2002. Visceral leishmaniasis: current status of control, diagnosis, and treatment, and a proposed research and development agenda. Lancet 2: 494501.[Crossref]
  79. Mahmoud M, , 2014. Assessment of visceral leishmaniasis consequences using ultrasound. Open J Radiol 4: 201206.[Crossref]
  80. Abdalla E, Ayad C, Fadl A, ElGaddal A, Saeed A, , 2014. Ultrasound findings in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Int J Med Imaging 2: 59.[Crossref]
  81. Melchionda F, Varani S, Carfagnini F, Belotti T, Di Muccio T, Tigani R, Bergamaschi R, Pession A, , 2014. Spleen nodules: a potential hallmark of visceral leishmaniasis in young children. BMC Infect Dis 14: 620.[Crossref]
  82. Bukte Y, Nazaroglu H, Mete A, Yilmaz F, , 2004. Visceral leishmaniasis with multiple nodular lesions of the liver and spleen: CT and sonographic findings. Abdom Imaging 29: 8284.[Crossref]
  83. Grobusch MP, Visser BJ, Boersma J, Huson M, Janssen S, Greve P, Browne JL, Ende-Bouwman J, Ende J, Zwinkels N, Huizenga E, Bree GJ, Stijnis C, Vugt M, Goorhuis A, , 2015. Ebola virus disease: basics the medical specialist should know. Netherlands J Crit Care 22: 614.
  84. Balasubramanian S, Janakiraman L, Kumar SS, Muralinath S, Shivbalan S, , 2006. A reappraisal of the criteria to diagnose plasma leakage in dengue hemorrhagic fever. Indian Pediatr 43: 334339.
  85. Michels M, Sumardi U, de Mast Q, Jusuf H, Puspita M, Dewi IM, Sinarta S, Alisjahbana B, van der Ven AJ, , 2013. The predictive diagnostic value of serial daily bedside ultrasonography for severe dengue in Indonesian adults. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2277.[Crossref]
  86. Srikiatkhachorn A, Krautrachue A, Ratanaprakarn W, Wongtapradit L, Nithipanya N, Kalayanarooj S, Nisalak A, Thomas SJ, Gibbons RV, Mammen MP, Jr Libraty DH, Ennis FA, Rothman AL, Green S, , 2007. Natural history of plasma leakage in dengue hemorrhagic fever: a serial ultrasonographic study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 26: 283290, discussion 291–292.[Crossref]
  87. Bharath Kumar Reddy KR, Laksmana RR, Veerappa BG, Shivananda, 2013. Ultrasonography as a tool in predicting the severity of dengue fever in children–a useful aid in a developing country. Pediatr Radiol 43: 971977.[Crossref]
  88. Oliveira R, Rios L, Branco M, Braga Junior L, Nascimento J, Silva G, Bandeira K, , 2010. Usefulness of ultrasonography in children with suspected dengue hemorrhagic fever: a literature review. Radiol Bras 43: 401407.[Crossref]
  89. Tufan ZK, Yigit H, Kacar M, Bulut C, Canpolat G, Hatipoglu CA, Kinikli S, Kosar P, Demiroz AP, , 2014. Sonographic findings in patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. J Ultrasound Med 33: 19992003.[Crossref]
  90. Ziraman I, Celikbas A, Ergonul O, Degirmenci T, Uyanik SA, Koparal S, Dokuzoguz B, , 2014. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: aid of abdominal ultrasonography in prediction of severity. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 14: 817820.[Crossref]
  91. Carr BG, Dean AJ, Everett WW, Ku BS, Mark DG, Okusanya O, Horan AD, Gracias VH, , 2007. Intensivist bedside ultrasound (INBU) for volume assessment in the intensive care unit: a pilot study. J Trauma 63: 495500, discussion 500–502.[Crossref]
  92. Lichtenstein D, , 2013. FALLS-protocol: lung ultrasound in hemodynamic assessment of shock. Heart Lung Vessel 5: 142147.
  93. Moreno CC, Kraft CS, Vanairsdale S, Kandiah P, Klopman MA, Ribner BS, Tridandapani S, , 2015. Performance of bedside diagnostic ultrasound in an Ebola isolation unit: the Emory University Hospital experience. Am J Roentgenol 204: 11571159.[Crossref]
  94. Mekky MA, Tolba M, Abdel-Malek MO, Abbas WA, Zidan M, , 2015. Human fascioliasis: a re-emerging disease in upper Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93: 7679.[Crossref]
  95. Teichmann D, Grobusch MP, Gobels K, Muller HP, Koehler W, Suttorp N, , 2000. Acute fascioliasis with multiple liver abscesses. Scand J Infect Dis 32: 558560.[Crossref]
  96. Shim SS, Kim Y, Lee JK, Lee JH, Song DE, , 2012. Pleuropulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis: CT and ultrasound findings. Br J Radiol 85: 403410.[Crossref]
  97. Jeon HK, Lee D, Park H, Min DY, Rim HJ, Zhang H, Yang Y, Li X, Eom KS, , 2012. Human infections with liver and minute intestinal flukes in Guangxi, China: analysis by DNA sequencing, ultrasonography, and immunoaffinity chromatography. Korean J Parasitol 50: 391394.[Crossref]
  98. Mand S, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Debrah A, Buettner M, Batsa L, Pfarr K, Adjei O, Hoerauf A, , 2005. Frequent detection of worm movements in onchocercal nodules by ultrasonography. Filaria J 4: 1.[Crossref]
  99. Darge K, Troeger J, Engelke C, Leichsenring M, Nelle M, Awadzi K, Buettner DW, , 1994. Evaluation of ultrasonography for the detection of drug-induced changes in onchocercal nodules. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51: 800808.
  100. Poltera AA, Reyna O, Zea-Flores G, Beltranena F, Nowell de Arevalo A, Zak F, , 1991. Use of an ophthalmologic ultrasoundscanner in human onchocercal skin nodules for non-invasive sequential assessment during a macrofilaricidal trial with amocarzine in Guatemala. The first experiences. Trop Med Parasitol 42: 303307.
  101. Mazur-Melewska K, Jonczyk K, Modlinska-Cwalinska A, Figlerowicz M, Sluzewski W, , 2014. Visceral larva migrans syndrome: analysis of serum cytokine levels in children with hepatic lesions confirmed in radiological findings. Parasite Immunol 36: 668673.[Crossref]
  102. Brennan RC, Wilson MW, Kaste S, Helton KJ, McCarville MB, , 2012. US and MRI of pediatric ocular masses with histopathological correlation. Pediatr Radiol 42: 738749.[Crossref]
  103. Umetsu S, Sogo T, Iwasawa K, Kondo T, Tsunoda T, Oikawa-Kawamoto M, Komatsu H, Inui A, Fujisawa T, , 2012. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country. World J Gastroenterol 20: 1405814062.[Crossref]
  104. Majid Z, Masood I, Pirzada MT, , 2015. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation. Trop Doct 45: 129131.[Crossref]
  105. Wu S, , 2009. Sonographic findings of Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastrointestinal and biliary tracts. Ultrasound Q 25: 207209.[Crossref]
  106. Pereira Junior C de B, Markman Filho B, , 2014. Clinical and echocardiographic predictors of mortality in chagasic cardiomyopathy—systematic review. Arq Bras Cardiol 102: 602610.
  107. Quintanilla-Cedillo MR, Leon-Urena H, Contreras-Ruiz J, Arenas R, , 2005. The value of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosis in 25 cases of furunculoid myiasis. Int J Dermatol 44: 3437.[Crossref]
  108. Zha Y, Zhou M, Hari A, Jacobsen B, Mitragotri N, Rivas B, Ventura OG, Boughton J, Fox JC, , 2015. Ultrasound diagnosis of malaria: examination of the spleen, liver, and optic nerve sheath diameter. World J Emerg Med 6: 1015.[Crossref]
  109. Henriquez-Camacho C, Garcia-Casasola G, Guillen-Astete C, Losa J, , 2015. Ultrasound for the diagnosis of infectious diseases: approach to the patient at point of care and at secondary level. J Infect 71: 18.[Crossref]
  110. Polat Ekinci A, Karabacak E, Tekin L, Ozarmagan G, Ozcakar L, , 2015. Ultrasound imaging for the follow-up of patients with leprosy: a pictorial essay. Br J Dermatol 172: 265267.[Crossref]
  111. Frade MA, Nogueira-Barbosa MH, Lugao HB, Furini RB, Marques Junior W, Foss NT, , 2013. New sonographic measures of peripheral nerves: a tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve involvement in leprosy. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 108: pii: S0074-02762013000300257.[Crossref]
  112. Mirabel M, Bacquelin R, Tafflet M, Robillard C, Huon B, Corsenac P, de Fremicourt I, Narayanan K, Meunier JM, Noel B, Hagege AA, Rouchon B, Jouven X, Marijon E, , 2015. Screening for rheumatic heart disease: evaluation of a focused cardiac ultrasound approach. Circulation 8: pii: e002324.
  113. Heuvelings CC, Belard S, Janssen S, Wallrauch C, Grobusch MP, Brunetti E, Giordani MT, Heller T, , 2015. Chest ultrasonography in patients with HIV: a case series and review of the literature. Infection doi:10.1007/s15010-015-0780-z.
  114. Nabeta HW, Bahr NC, Rhein J, Fossland N, Kiragga AN, Meya DB, Dunlop SJ, Boulware DR, , 2014. Accuracy of noninvasive intraocular pressure or optic nerve sheath diameter measurements for predicting elevated intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis. Open Forum Infect Dis 1: ofu093.[Crossref]
  115. WHO, 1998. Training in diagnostic ultrasound: essentials, principles and standards. Report of a WHO Study Group. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 875: i46, back cover.
  116. Torres-Macho J, Anton-Santos JM, Garcia-Gutierrez I, de Castro-Garcia M, Gamez-Diez S, de la Torre PG, Latorre-Barcenilla G, Majo-Carbajo Y, Reparaz-Gonzalez JC, de Casasola GG, , 2012. Initial accuracy of bedside ultrasound performed by emergency physicians for multiple indications after a short training period. Am J Emerg Med 30: 19431949.[Crossref]
  117. Short Course on Ultrasound in Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine. Available at: www.tropicalultrasound.org. Accessed May 17, 2015.
  118. Clinical Ultrasound in Tropical Infectious Diseases. Available at: http://www.tropicalultrasound.org/docs/Lima_Ultrasound_2015_Registration.pdf. Accessed May 17, 2015.
  119. New Course: Introduction to Ultrasound in Low Resource Settings. Available at: http://www.lstmliverpool.ac.uk/about-lstm/news-and-media/latest-news/2013/jan-june/new-course-cl03/. Accessed May 15, 2015.
  120. Adler D, Mgalula K, Price D, Taylor O, , 2008. Introduction of a portable ultrasound unit into the health services of the Lugufu refugee camp, Kigoma District, Tanzania. Int J Emerg Med 1: 261266.[Crossref]
  121. Beira in Mozambique. Emergency Care Teaching Visit November 2012. Available at: http://www.emergencyultrasound.org.uk/20.html. Accessed May 2, 2015.
  122. 2012. FASH Ultrasound Course, 24 May, Krole Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Available at: http://www.tropicalultrasound.org/FASH/FASH_report.pdf.
  123. Jang TB, Ruggeri W, Dyne P, Kaji AH, , 2010. Learning curve of emergency physicians using emergency bedside sonography for symptomatic first-trimester pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med 29: 14231428.[Crossref]
  124. Jang TB, Casey RJ, Dyne P, Kaji A, , 2010. The learning curve of resident physicians using emergency ultrasonography for obstructive uropathy. Acad Emerg Med 17: 10241027.[Crossref]
  125. Tolsgaard MG, Todsen T, Sorensen JL, Ringsted C, Lorentzen T, Ottesen B, Tabor A, , 2013. International multispecialty consensus on how to evaluate ultrasound competence: a Delphi consensus survey. PLoS One 8: e57687.[Crossref]
  126. WHO, 2011. WHO Manual of Diagnostic Ultrasound. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241547451_eng.pdf. Accessed May 15, 2015.
  127. Heller T, , 2013. Focus Assessment with Sonography for HIV/TB: A Practical Manual. Available at: http://www.talcuk.org/books/focused-assessment-with-sonography-for-hivtb.htm. Accessed May 15, 2015.
  128. Partners in Health, 2011. Manual of Ultrasound for Resource-Limited Settings. Available at: http://www.pih.org/library/manual-of-ultrasound-for-resource-limited-settings. Accessed May 15, 2015.
  129. American College of Emergency Physicians, 2008. Emergency Ultrasound Guidelines. Available at: http://www.acep.org/workarea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=32878. Accessed May 15, 2015.
  130. International Federation for Emergency Medicine, 2014. Point-of-Care Ultrasound Curriculum Guidelines. Available at: http://www.ifem.cc/site/DefaultSite/filesystem/documents/Policies%20and%20Guidelines/IFEM%20Point-of-Care%20Ultrasound%20Curriculum%20Guidelines%202014.pdf. Accessed May 15, 2015.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0421
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0421
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Jun 2015
  • Accepted : 18 Aug 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error