1921
Volume 93, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

In this cross-sectional seroepidemiological study we sought to examine the evidence for circulation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) among herders in Madagascar and Kenya. From July 2010 to June 2012, we enrolled 459 herders and 98 controls (without ruminant exposures) and studied their sera (immunoglobulin G [IgG] and IgM through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and plaque reduction neutralization test [PRNT] assays) for evidence of previous RVFV infection. Overall, 59 (12.9%) of 459 herders and 7 (7.1%) of the 98 controls were positive by the IgG ELISA assay. Of the 59 ELISA-positive herders, 23 (38.9%) were confirmed by the PRNT assay (21 from eastern Kenya). Two of the 21 PRNT-positive study subjects also had elevated IgM antibodies against RVFV suggesting recent infection. Multivariate modeling in this study revealed that being seminomadic (odds ratio [OR] = 6.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1–15.4) was most strongly associated with antibodies against RVFV. Although we cannot know when these infections occurred, it seems likely that some interepidemic RVFV infections are occurring among herders. As there are disincentives regarding reporting RVFV outbreaks in livestock or wildlife, it may be prudent to conduct periodic, limited, active seroepidemiological surveillance for RVFV infections in herders, especially in eastern Kenya.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0383
2015-12-09
2017-09-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/93/6/1364.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0383&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bird BH, Ksiazek TG, Nichol ST, Maclachlan NJ, , 2009. Rift Valley fever virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 234: 883893.[Crossref]
  2. Daubney R, Hudson JR, Garnham PC, , 1931. Enzootic hepatitis or Rift Valley fever. An undescribed virus disease of sheep cattle and man from east Africa. J Pathol Bacteriol 34: 545579.[Crossref]
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000. Outbreak of Rift Valley fever—Saudi Arabia, August–October, 2000. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 49: 905908.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000. Outbreak of Rift Valley fever—Yemen, August–October 2000. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 49: 10651066.
  5. Munyua P, Murithi RM, Wainwright S, Githinji J, Hightower A, Mutonga D, Macharia J, Ithondeka PM, Musaa J, Breiman RF, Bloland P, Njenga MK, , 2007. Rift Valley fever outbreak—Kenya, November 2006–January 2007. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56: 7376.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1998. Rift Valley Fever—east Africa, 1997–1998. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47: 261264.
  7. Nguku PM, Sharif SK, Mutonga D, Amwayi S, Omolo J, Mohammed O, Farnon EC, Gould LH, Lederman E, Rao C, Sang R, Schnabel D, Feikin DR, Hightower A, Njenga MK, Breiman RF, , 2010. An investigation of a major outbreak of Rift Valley fever in Kenya: 2006–2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 513.[Crossref]
  8. Anyangu AS, Gould LH, Sharif SK, Nguku PM, Omolo JO, Mutonga D, Rao CY, Lederman ER, Schnabel D, Paweska JT, Katz M, Hightower A, Njenga MK, Feikin DR, Breiman RF, , 2010. Risk factors for severe Rift Valley fever infection in Kenya, 2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 1421.[Crossref]
  9. Andriamandimby SF, Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina AE, Jeanmaire EM, Ravololomanana L, Razafimanantsoa LT, Rakotojoelinandrasana T, Razainirina J, Hoffmann J, Ravalohery JP, Rafisandratantsoa JT, Rollin PE, Reynes JM, , 2010. Rift Valley fever during rainy seasons, Madagascar, 2008 and 2009. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 963970.[Crossref]
  10. Morvan J, Saluzzo JF, Fontenille D, Rollin PE, Coulanges P, , 1991. Rift Valley fever on the east coast of Madagascar. Res Virol 142: 475482.[Crossref]
  11. Morvan J, Rollin PE, Laventure S, Rakotoarivony I, Roux J, , 1992. Rift Valley fever epizootic in the central highlands of Madagascar. Res Virol 143: 407415.[Crossref]
  12. Evans A, Gakuya F, Paweska JT, Rostal M, Akoolo L, Van Vuren PJ, Manyibe T, Macharia JM, Ksiazek TG, Feikin DR, Breiman RF, Kariuki Njenga M, , 2008. Prevalence of antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus in Kenyan wildlife. Epidemiol Infect 136: 12611269.[Crossref]
  13. LaBeaud AD, Cross PC, Getz WM, Glinka A, King CH, , 2011. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: evidence of interepidemic transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 641646.[Crossref]
  14. LaBeaud AD, Muchiri EM, Ndzovu M, Mwanje MT, Muiruri S, Peters CJ, King CH, , 2008. Interepidemic Rift Valley fever virus seropositivity, northeastern Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 12401246.[Crossref]
  15. LaBeaud AD, Muiruri S, Sutherland LJ, Dahir S, Gildengorin G, Morrill J, Muchiri EM, Peters CJ, King CH, , 2011. Postepidemic analysis of Rift Valley fever virus transmission in northeastern Kenya: a village cohort study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1265.[Crossref]
  16. LaBeaud AD, Ochiai Y, Peters CJ, Muchiri EM, King CH, , 2007. Spectrum of Rift Valley fever virus transmission in Kenya: insights from three distinct regions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 795800.
  17. Muiruri S, Kabiru EW, Muchiri EM, Hussein H, Kagondu F, LaBeaud AD, King CH, , 2014. Cross-sectional survey of Rift Valley fever virus exposure in Bodhei Village located in a transitional coastal forest habitat in Lamu County, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 394400.[Crossref]
  18. Antonovics J, Hood ME, Baker CH, , 2006. Molecular virology—was the 1918 flu avian in origin? Nature 440: E9E10.[Crossref]
  19. Webb PA, Johnson KM, Mackenzie RB, , 1969. The measurement of specific antibodies in Bolivian hemorrhagic fever by neutralization of virus plaques. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 130: 10131019.[Crossref]
  20. Earley E, Peralta PH, Johnson KM, , 1967. A plaque neutralization method for arboviruses. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 125: 741747.[Crossref]
  21. Paweska JT, Burt FJ, Swanepoel R, , 2005. Validation of IgG-sandwich and IgM-capture ELISA for the detection of antibody to Rift Valley fever virus in humans. J Virol Methods 124: 173181.[Crossref]
  22. Chevalier V, Pepin M, Plee L, Lancelot R, , 2010. Rift Valley fever—a threat for Europe? Euro Surveill 15: 1828.
  23. Rolin AI, Berrang-Ford L, Kulkarni MA, , 2013. The risk of Rift Valley fever virus introduction and establishment in the United States and European Union. Emerg Microbes Infect 2: e81.[Crossref]
  24. Hartley DM, Rinderknecht JL, Nipp TL, Clarke NP, Snowder GD, National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense Advisory Group on Rift Valley Fever, , 2011. Potential effects of Rift Valley fever in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 17: e1.
  25. Memish ZA, Masri MA, Anderson BD, Heil GL, Merrill HR, Khan SU, Alsahly A, Gray GC, , 2015. Elevated antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus among humans with exposure to ruminants in Saudi Arabia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 739743.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0383
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0383
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 May 2015
  • Accepted : 16 Aug 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error