1921
Volume 94, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract

At the end of 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in Saint Martin Island, Caribbean. The Asian lineage was identified. Seven months after this introduction, the seroprevalence was 16.9% in the population of Saint Martin and 39.0% of infections remained asymptomatic. This moderate attack rate and the apparent limited size of the outbreak in Saint Martin could be explained by control measures involved to lower the exposure of the inhabitants. Other drivers such as climatic factors and population genetic factors should be explored. The substantial rate of asymptomatic infections recorded points to a potential source of infection that can both spread in new geographic areas and maintain an inconspicuous endemic circulation in the Americas.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0308
2016-02-03
2019-11-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/94/2/393.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0308&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ross RW, , 1956. The Newala epidemic. III. The virus: isolation, pathogenic properties and relationship to the epidemic. J Hyg (Lond) 54: 177191.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Krishnamoorthy K, Harichandrakumar KT, Krishna Kumari A, Das LK, , 2009. Burden of chikungunya in India: estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALY) lost in 2006 epidemic. J Vector Borne Dis 46: 2635. [Google Scholar]
  3. Powers AM, Brault AC, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, , 2000. Re-emergence of chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distant evolutionary relationships. J Gen Virol 81: 471479.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Burt FJ, Rolph MS, Rulli NE, Mahalingam S, Heise MT, , 2012. Chikungunya: a re-emerging virus. Lancet Lond Engl 379: 662671.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Noël H, Rizzo C, , 2014. Spread of chikungunya from the Caribbean to mainland Central and South America: a greater risk of spillover in Europe? Euro Surveill 19: pii: 20855.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Talarmin A, Labeau B, Lelarge J, Sarthou JL, , 1998. Immunoglobulin A-specific capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of dengue fever. J Clin Microbiol 36: 11891192. [Google Scholar]
  7. Kumar NP, Suresh A, Vanamail P, Sabesan S, Krishnamoorthy KG, Mathew J, Jose VT, Jambulingam P, , 2011. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Kerala, India, 2007: a seroprevalence study. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 106: 912916.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Moro ML, Gagliotti C, Silvi G, Angelini R, Sambri V, Rezza G, Massimiliani E, Mattivi A, Grilli E, Finarelli AC, Spataro N, Pierro AM, Seyler T, Macini P, Chikungunya Study Group, , 2010. Chikungunya virus in north-eastern Italy: a seroprevalence survey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 508511.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Ayu SM, Lai LR, Chan YF, Hatim A, Hairi NN, Ayob A, Sam I-C, , 2010. Seroprevalence survey of chikungunya virus in Bagan Panchor, Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 12451248.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Sissoko D, Moendandze A, Malvy D, Giry C, Ezzedine K, Solet JL, Pierre V, , 2008. Seroprevalence and risk factors of chikungunya virus infection in Mayotte, Indian Ocean, 2005–2006: a population-based survey. PLoS One 3: e3066.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Gérardin P, Guernier V, Perrau J, Fianu A, Le Roux K, Grivard P, Michault A, de Lamballerie X, Flahault A, Favier F, , 2008. Estimating chikungunya prevalence in La Réunion Island outbreak by serosurveys: two methods for two critical times of the epidemic. BMC Infect Dis 8: 99.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Sergon K, Njuguna C, Kalani R, Ofula V, Onyango C, Konongoi LS, Bedno S, Burke H, Dumilla AM, Konde J, Njenga MK, Sang R, Breiman RF, , 2008. Seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection on Lamu Island, Kenya, October 2004. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 333337. [Google Scholar]
  13. Sergon K, Yahaya AA, Brown J, Bedja SA, Mlindasse M, Agata N, Allaranger Y, Ball MD, Powers AM, Ofula V, Onyango C, Konongoi LS, Sang R, Njenga MK, Breiman RF, , 2007. Seroprevalence of chikungunya virus infection on Grande Comore Island, union of the Comoros, 2005. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 11891193. [Google Scholar]
  14. Nakkhara P, Chongsuvivatwong V, Thammapalo S, , 2013. Risk factors for symptomatic and asymptomatic chikungunya infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 107: 789796.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Dupont-Rouzeyrol M, Caro V, Guillaumot L, Vazeille M, D'Ortenzio E, Thiberge J-M, Baroux N, Gourinat A-C, Grandadam M, Failloux A-B, , 2012. Chikungunya virus and the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti in New Caledonia (South Pacific Region). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis Larchmt N 12: 10361041.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Roth A, Hoy D, Horwood PF, Ropa B, Hancock T, Guillaumot L, Rickart K, Frison P, Pavlin B, Souares Y, , 2014. Preparedness for threat of chikungunya in the pacific. Emerg Infect Dis 20. doi:10.3201/eid2008.130696.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Sam I-C, Chan YF, Chan SY, Loong SK, Chin HK, Hooi PS, Ganeswrie R, Abubakar S, , 2009. Chikungunya virus of Asian and central/east African genotypes in Malaysia. J Clin Virol Off Publ Pan Am Soc Clin Virol 46: 180183.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Vega-Rúa A, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R, Mousson L, Vazeille M, Fuchs S, Yébakima A, Gustave J, Girod R, Dusfour I, Leparc-Goffart I, Vanlandingham DL, Huang Y-JS, Lounibos LP, Mohamed Ali S, Nougairede A, de Lamballerie X, Failloux A-B, , 2015. Chikungunya virus transmission potential by local Aedes mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003780.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Perkins TA, Metcalf CJE, Grenfell BT, Tatem AJ, , 2015. Estimating drivers of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in its invasion of the Americas. PLoS Curr 7. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.a4c7b6ac10e0420b1788c9767946d1fc. [Google Scholar]
  20. Cassadou S, Boucau S, Petit-Sinturel M, Huc P, Leparc-Goffart I, Ledrans M, , 2014. Emergence of chikungunya fever on the French side of Saint Martin Island, October to December 2013. Euro Surveill 19: pii: 20752.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Manimunda SP, Sugunan AP, Rai SK, Vijayachari P, Shriram AN, Sharma S, Muruganandam N, Chaitanya IK, Guruprasad DR, Sudeep AB, , 2010. Outbreak of chikungunya fever, Dakshina Kannada District, south India, 2008. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 751754.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Appassakij H, Khuntikij P, Kemapunmanus M, Wutthanarungsan R, Silpapojakul K, , 2013. Viremic profiles in asymptomatic and symptomatic chikungunya fever: a blood transfusion threat? Transfus (Paris) 53: 25672574.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Díaz Y, Carrera J-P, Cerezo L, Arauz D, Guerra I, Cisneros J, Armién B, Botello AM, Araúz AB, Gonzalez V, López Y, Moreno L, López-Vergès S, Moreno BA, , 2015. Chikungunya virus infection: first detection of imported and autochthonous cases in Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 482485.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Teixeira MG, Andrade AMS, Costa M da CN, Castro J-NSM, Oliveira FLS, Goes CSB, Maia M, Santana EB, Nunes BTD, Vasconcelos PFC, , 2015. East/central/south African genotype chikungunya virus, Brazil, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 906907.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0308
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0308
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 22 Apr 2015
  • Accepted : 16 Oct 2015
  • Published online : 03 Feb 2016

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error