Volume 93, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus in the California serogroup that can cause an acute febrile illness, meningitis, or meningoencephalitis. We describe epidemiologic and clinical features for JCV disease cases occurring in the United States during 2000–2013. A case of JCV disease was defined as an acute illness in a person with laboratory evidence of a recent JCV infection. During 2000–2013, we identified 31 cases of JCV disease in residents of 13 states. The median age was 48 years (range, 10–69) and 21 (68%) were male. Eleven (35%) case patients had meningoencephalitis, 6 (19%) meningitis, 7 (23%) fever without neurologic involvement, and 7 (23%) had an unknown clinical syndrome. Fifteen (48%) were hospitalized and there were no deaths. Health-care providers and public health officials should consider JCV disease in the differential diagnoses of viral meningitis and encephalitis, obtain appropriate specimens for testing, and report cases to public health authorities.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. Human Jamestown Canyon virus infection—Montana, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60: 652655.
  2. Grimstad PR, Shabino CL, Calisher CH, Waldman RJ, , 1982. A case of encephalitis in a human associated with a serologic rise to Jamestown Canyon virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31: 12381244.
  3. Deibel R, Srihongse S, Grayson MA, Grimstad PR, Mahdy MS, Artsob H, Calisher CH, , 1983. Jamestown Canyon virus: the etiologic agent of an emerging human disease? Prog Clin Biol Res 123: 313325.
  4. Srihongse S, Grayson MA, Deibel R, , 1984. California serogroup viruses in New York State: the role of subtypes in human infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33: 12181227.
  5. Nelson R, Wilcox L, Brennan T, Mayo D, , 2001. Surveillance for arbovirus infections. Connecticut Epidemiologist 22: 5.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014. CDC Arboviral Catalog. Available at: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/arbocat/VirusDetails.aspx?ID=206&SID=2. Accessed January 6, 2014.
  7. DeFoliart GR, Anslow RO, Hanson RP, Morris CD, Papadopoulos O, Sather GE, , 1969. Isolation of Jamestown Canyon serotype of California encephalitis virus from naturally infected Aedes mosquitoes and tabanids. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18: 440447.
  8. Armstrong PM, Andreadis TG, , 2007. Genetic relationships of Jamestown Canyon virus strains infecting mosquitoes collected in Connecticut. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 11571162.
  9. Andreadis TG, Anderson JF, Armstrong PM, Main AJ, , 2008. Isolations of Jamestown Canyon virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) from field-collected mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA: a ten-year analysis, 1997–2006. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8: 175188.[Crossref]
  10. Boromisa RD, Grayson MA, , 1990. Incrimination of Aedes provocans as a vector of Jamestown Canyon virus in an enzootic focus of northeastern New York. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6: 504509.
  11. Boromisa RD, Grimstad PR, , 1986. Virus-vector-host relationships of Aedes stimulans and Jamestown Canyon virus in a northern Indiana enzootic focus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 12851295.
  12. Campbell GL, Eldridge BF, Reeves WC, Hardy JL, , 1991. Isolation of Jamestown Canyon virus from boreal Aedes mosquitoes from the Sierra Nevada of California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44: 244249.
  13. Fulhorst CF, Hardy JL, Eldridge BF, Chiles RE, Reeves WC, , 1996. Ecology of Jamestown Canyon virus (Bunyaviridae: California serogroup) in coastal California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55: 185189.
  14. Hardy JL, Eldridge BF, Reeves WC, Schutz SJ, Presser SB, , 1993. Isolations of Jamestown canyon virus (Bunyaviridae: California serogroup) from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the western United States, 1990–1992. J Med Entomol 30: 10531059.[Crossref]
  15. Heard PB, Zhang MB, Grimstad PR, , 1990. Isolation of Jamestown Canyon virus (California serogroup) from Aedes mosquitoes in an enzootic focus in Michigan. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6: 461468.
  16. Smith GC, Moore CG, Davis T, Savage HM, Thapa AB, Shrestha SL, Karabatsos N, , 1993. Arbovirus surveillance in northern Colorado, 1987 and 1991. J Med Entomol 30: 257261.[Crossref]
  17. Takeda T, Whitehouse CA, Brewer M, Gettman AD, Mather TN, , 2003. Arbovirus surveillance in Rhode Island: assessing potential ecologic and climatic correlates. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 19: 179189.
  18. Walker ED, Grayson MA, Edman JD, , 1993. Isolation of Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses (California serogroup) from Aedes mosquitoes in western Massachusetts. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9: 131134.
  19. Anderson JF, Main AJ, Armstrong PM, Andreadis TG, Ferrandino FJ, , 2015. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003–2006. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 377393.[Crossref]
  20. Aguirre AA, McLean RG, Cook RS, Quan TJ, , 1992. Serologic survey for selected arboviruses and other potential pathogens in wildlife from Mexico. J Wildl Dis 28: 435442.[Crossref]
  21. Boromisa RD, Grimstad PR, , 1987. Seroconversion rates to Jamestown Canyon virus among six populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Indiana. J Wildl Dis 23: 2333.[Crossref]
  22. Campbell GL, Eldridge BF, Hardy JL, Reeves WC, Jessup DA, Presser SB, , 1989. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in deer from mountainous areas of California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40: 428437.
  23. Clark GG, Crabbs CL, Watts DM, Bailey CL, , 1986. An ecological study of Jamestown Canyon virus on the Delmarva Peninsula, with emphasis on its possible vector. J Med Entomol 23: 588599.[Crossref]
  24. Campbell GL, Reeves WC, Hardy JL, Eldridge BF, , 1990. Distribution of neutralizing antibodies to California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in horses and rodents in California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42: 282290.
  25. Goff G, Whitney H, Drebot MA, , 2012. Roles of host species, geographic separation, and isolation in the seroprevalence of Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses in Newfoundland. Appl Environ Microbiol 78: 67346740.[Crossref]
  26. Grimstad PR, Schmitt SM, Williams DG, , 1986. Prevalence of neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) in populations of elk and moose in northern Michigan and Ontario, Canada. J Wildl Dis 22: 453458.[Crossref]
  27. Issel CJ, Trainer DO, Thompson WH, , 1972. Serologic evidence of infections of white-tailed deer in Wisconsin with three California group arboviruses (La Crosse, trivittatus, and Jamestown Canyon). Am J Trop Med Hyg 21: 985988.
  28. McFarlane BL, Embil JA, Artsob H, Spence L, Rozee KR, , 1981. Antibodies to the California group of arboviruses in the moose (Alces alces americana Clinton) population of Nova Scotia. Can J Microbiol 27: 12191223.[Crossref]
  29. McFarlane BL, Embree JE, Embil JA, Rozee KR, Artsob A, , 1982. Antibodies to the California group of arboviruses in animal populations of New Brunswick. Can J Microbiol 28: 200204.[Crossref]
  30. Murphy RK, , 1989. Serologic evidence of arboviral infections in white-tailed deer from central Wisconsin. J Wildl Dis 25: 300301.[Crossref]
  31. Nagayama JN, Komar N, Levine JF, Apperson CS, , 2001. Bunyavirus infections in North Carolina white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1: 169171.[Crossref]
  32. Nelson DM, Gardner IA, Chiles RF, Balasuriya UB, Eldridge BF, Scott TW, Reisen WK, Maclachlan NJ, , 2004. Prevalence of antibodies against Saint Louis encephalitis and Jamestown Canyon viruses in California horses. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 27: 209215.[Crossref]
  33. Watts DM, LeDuc JW, Bailey CL, Dalrymple JM, Gargan TP, , 1982. Serologic evidence of Jamestown Canyon and Keystone virus infection in vertebrates of the DelMarVa Peninsula. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31: 12451251.
  34. Zarnke RL, Calisher CH, Kerschner J, , 1983. Serologic evidence of arbovirus infections in humans and wild animals in Alaska. J Wildl Dis 19: 175179.[Crossref]
  35. Zamparo JM, Andreadis TG, Shope RE, Tirrell SJ, , 1997. Serologic evidence of Jamestown Canyon virus infection in white-tailed deer populations from Connecticut. J Wildl Dis 33: 623627.[Crossref]
  36. Neitzel DF, Grimstad PR, , 1991. Serological evidence of California group and Cache Valley virus infection in Minnesota white-tailed deer. J Wildl Dis 27: 230237.[Crossref]
  37. Campbell GL, Reeves WC, Hardy JL, Eldridge BF, , 1992. Seroepidemiology of California and Bunyamwera serogroup bunyavirus infections in humans in California. Am J Epidemiol 136: 308319.[Crossref]
  38. Grimstad PR, Calisher CH, Harroff RN, Wentworth BB, , 1986. Jamestown Canyon virus (California serogroup) is the etiologic agent of widespread infection in Michigan humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 376386.
  39. Mayo D, Karabatsos N, Scarano FJ, Brennan T, Buck D, Fiorentino T, Mennone J, Tran S, , 2001. Jamestown Canyon virus: seroprevalence in Connecticut. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 911912.[Crossref]
  40. Walters LL, Tirrell SJ, Shope RE, , 1999. Seroepidemiology of California and Bunyamwera serogroup (Bunyaviridae) virus infections in native populations of Alaska. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 806821.
  41. Balfour HH, Edelman CK, Bauer H, Siem RA, , 1976. California arbovirus (La Crosse) infections. III. Epidemiology of California encephalitis in Minnesota. J Infect Dis 133: 293301.[Crossref]
  42. Calisher CH, , 1983. Taxonomy, classification, and geographic distribution of California serogroup bunyaviruses. Prog Clin Biol Res 123: 116.
  43. Karabatsos N, Mathews JH, , 1980. Serological reactions of fractionated hamster immunoglobulins with California group viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 14201427.
  44. Russell PK, Nisalak A, , 1967. Dengue virus identification by the plaque reduction neutralization test. J Immunol 99: 291296.
  45. Russell PK, Nisalak A, Sukhavachana P, Vivona S, , 1967. A plaque reduction test for dengue virus neutralizing antibodies. J Immunol 99: 285290.
  46. Lindsey NP, Brown JA, Kightlinger L, Rosenberg L, Fischer M, , 2012. State health department perceived utility of and satisfaction with ArboNET, the U.S. National Arboviral Surveillance System. Public Health Rep 127: 383390.
  47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014. Arboviral Diseases, Neuroinvasive and Non-neuroinvasive: 2014 Case Definition. Available at: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/NNDSS/script/casedef.aspx?CondYrID=946&DatePub=2014-01-01. Accessed March 3, 2015.
  48. Gaensbauer JT, Lindsey NP, Messacar K, Staples JE, Fischer M, , 2014. Neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the United States: 2003 to 2012. Pediatrics 134: e642e650.[Crossref]
  49. Lindsey NP, Lehman JA, Staples JE, Fischer M, , 2014. West Nile virus and other arboviral diseases—United States, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 63: 521526.
  50. Grimstad PR, Monath TP, , 1988. California group virus disease. , ed. The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 99136.
  51. Johnson DK, Staples JE, Sotir MJ, Warshauer DM, Davis JP, , 2010. Tickborne Powassan virus infections among Wisconsin residents. WMJ 109: 9197.
  52. Grimstad PR, Service MD, , 2001. Jamestown Canyon virus. , ed. Encyclopedia of Arthropod-transmitted Infections of Man and Domestic Animals. New York, NY: CABI Publishing, 235239.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Mar 2015
  • Accepted : 10 Apr 2015

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error